# Introduction to spatial analysis

Spatial analysis is the process of using analytical techniques to find relationships, discover patterns, and solve problems with geographic data. The goal of every analysis is to turn data into information. Most analyses involve using your data as input, executing one or more operations, and then visualizing the output data on a map. Geometry analysis is a client-side calculation performed on two or more geometries. Feature analysis is a server-side process performed on one or more feature layers. 3D visual analysis is a client-side analysis of terrain and objects. To learn how to perform these analyses, go to the topics below.

Hot spot analysis revealing areas of high and low home values in San Francisco.

## Topics

### Geometry analysis

Client-side analyses on point, polyline, and polygon geometries using the ArcGIS Maps SDK for JavaScript, ArcGIS API for Python, and ArcGIS Maps SDKs for Native Apps.

### Introduction

Introduction to geometry analysis and the types of problems you can solve.

### Types of geometry analysis

Explore the different types of geometry operations.

### How to perform geometry analysis

Learn the steps to perform a geometry analysis.

### Spatial relationship

Determine the topological relationships between two shapes.

### Calculation

Perform geometric calculations such as buffer, intersect, or union.

### Distance and area

Calculate distance and area for geometric shapes.

### Projection

Project geometric shapes to new coordinate systems.

### Feature analysis

Server-side analyses on feature data to find relationships and patterns using the spatial analysis service, ArcGIS API for Python, ArcGIS REST JS, and ArcGIS REST API.

### Introduction

Introduction to feature analysis and the types of problems you can solve.

### Types of feature analysis

Explore the different types of feature analysis operations.

### How to perform feature analysis

Learn the steps to perform a feature analysis with ArcGIS tools and APIs.

### Find data

Find and extract features using SQL, spatial queries, and other techniques.

### Combine data

Overlay (merge or intersect) two feature collections.

### Summarize data

Aggregate, join, or find features near other features.

### Analyze patterns

Find patterns in data using hot spot, cluster, tessellation, and interpolation operations.

### Calculate geometries

Buffer, find centroids, or create tessellations from feature collections.

### 3D visual analysis

Client-side 3D analysis on terrain and objects using the ArcGIS Maps SDK for JavaScript and ArcGIS Maps SDKs for Native Apps.

### Introduction

Introduction to 3D visual analyses and the types of problems you can solve.

### Line of sight

Create a 3D line of sight.

### Distance measurement

Create a 3D distance measurement.

### Viewshed

Create a 3D viewshed.

## Tutorials

Learn how to perform spatial analyses interactively with the Map Viewer and programmatically with ArcGIS API for Python, ArcGIS REST JS, ArcGIS REST API, and other APIs.

## Services

### Spatial analysis service

Process spatial datasets to discover relationships and patterns.