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ArcGIS Runtime SDK for .NET

Animate 3D graphic

This code sample is available for these platforms:
View Sample on GitHub

An OrbitGeoElementCameraController follows a graphic while the graphic's position and rotation are animated.

Image of animate 3D graphic

Use case

Visualize movement through a 3D landscape.

How to use the sample

Animation Controls:

  • Select a mission -- select a flight path
  • Play/Pause -- toggles playing and stopping the animation
  • Follow/Don't follow -- toggles the camera's free cam mode and follow
  • Mission progress -- shows how far along the route the plane is. Slide to change keyframe in animation
  • Flight speed -- controls speed of animation

How it works

  1. Create a GraphicsOverlay and add it to the SceneView.
  2. Create a ModelSceneSymbol object.
  3. Create a Graphic object and set its geometry to a Point.
  4. Set the ModelSceneSymbol object to the graphic.
  5. Add heading, pitch, and roll attributes to the graphic. Get the attributes from the graphic with Graphic.attributes.
  6. Create a SimpleRenderer object and set its expression properties.
  7. Add graphic and a renderer to the graphics overlay.
  8. Create a OrbitGeoElementCameraController which is set to target the graphic.
  9. Assign the camera controller to the SceneView.
  10. Update the graphic's location, heading, pitch, and roll.

Relevant API

  • Scene
  • Camera
  • GlobeCameraController
  • Graphic
  • GraphicsOverlay
  • ModelSceneSymbol
  • OrbitGeoElementCameraController
  • Renderer
  • SceneProperties
  • SceneView
  • SurfacePlacement

Offline data

This sample downloads the following items from ArcGIS Online automatically:

  • - A 3D model for use within an ArcGIS Runtime Model Scene Symbol.
  • GrandCanyon.csv - CSV data for a route through the Grand Canyon
  • Hawaii.csv - CSV data for a route in Hawaii
  • Pyrenees.csv - CSV data for a route through the Pyrenees
  • Snowdon.csv - CSV data for a route near Mount Snowdon


Camera, ModelSceneSymbol, OrbitGeoElementCameraController, RendererSceneProperties, SceneView

Sample Code

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
    Title="Animate 3D Graphic">
            <RowDefinition Height="Auto" />
            <RowDefinition Height="*" />
            <RowDefinition Height="170" />
            <ColumnDefinition Width="170" />
            <ColumnDefinition Width="*" />
            <ColumnDefinition Width="150" />
            AtmosphereEffect="Realistic" />
            <Picker x:Name="MissionSelectionBox" VerticalOptions="CenterAndExpand" />
                Text="Pause" />
            <Button Clicked="ToggleFollowPlane" Text="Don't Follow" />
            <!--  Frame is hidden on iOS due to layout issues  -->
                <Label Text="Mission Progress:" TextColor="Black" />
                    ValueChanged="MissionProgressOnSeek" />
                <Label TextColor="Black">Altitude:</Label>
                <Label x:Name="AltitudeLabel" TextColor="Black" />
                <Label TextColor="Black">Heading:</Label>
                <Label x:Name="HeadingLabel" TextColor="Black" />
                <Label TextColor="Black">Pitch:</Label>
                <Label x:Name="PitchLabel" TextColor="Black" />
                <Label TextColor="Black">Roll:</Label>
                <Label x:Name="RollLabel" TextColor="Black" />
            IsAttributionTextVisible="False" />
// Copyright 2018 Esri.
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at:
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an
// "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific
// language governing permissions and limitations under the License.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Diagnostics;
using System.IO;
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using ArcGISRuntime.Samples.Managers;
using Esri.ArcGISRuntime.Geometry;
using Esri.ArcGISRuntime.Mapping;
using Esri.ArcGISRuntime.Symbology;
using Esri.ArcGISRuntime.UI;
using Xamarin.Forms;
using Colors = System.Drawing.Color;

namespace ArcGISRuntime.Samples.Animate3DGraphic
        name: "Animate 3D graphic",
        category: "GraphicsOverlay",
        description: "An `OrbitGeoElementCameraController` follows a graphic while the graphic's position and rotation are animated.",
        instructions: "Animation Controls:",
        tags: new[] { "Camera", "ModelSceneSymbol", "OrbitGeoElementCameraController", "RendererSceneProperties", "SceneView" })]
    public partial class Animate3DGraphic : ContentPage
        // URL to the elevation service - provides terrain elevation
        private readonly Uri _elevationServiceUrl = new Uri("");

        // Graphic for highlighting the route in the inset map
        private Graphic _routeGraphic;

        // Graphic for highlighting the airplane in the inset map
        private Graphic _plane2D;

        // Graphic for showing the 3D plane model in the scene
        private Graphic _plane3D;

        // Camera controller for centering the camera on the airplane
        private OrbitGeoElementCameraController _orbitCameraController;

        // Timer control enables stopping and starting frame-by-frame animation
        private bool _animationTimer;

        // Number of frames in the mission animation
        private int _frameCount;

        // Index of current frame in the animation
        private int _keyframe;

        // Dictionary of mission file names and the corresponding portal item IDs
        private readonly Dictionary<string, string> _missionToItemId = new Dictionary<string, string>
            {"Hawaii", "e87c154fb9c2487f999143df5b08e9b1"},
            {"Pyrenees", "5a9b60cee9ba41e79640a06bcdf8084d"},
            {"Snowdon", "12509ffdc684437f8f2656b0129d2c13"}

        // Array of frames for the current mission
        //   A MissionFrame contains the position of the plane for a single moment in the animation
        private MissionFrame[] _missionData;

        public Animate3DGraphic()
            // Hide the stats display on iOS because it looks bad
#if __IOS__
            LayoutFrame.IsVisible = false;
            // Create the UI, setup the control references and execute initialization

        private async void Initialize()
            // Apply appropriate maps to the scene and the inset map view
            InsetMapView.Map = new Map(Basemap.CreateImagery());
            MySceneView.Scene = new Scene(Basemap.CreateImagery());

            // Update the mission selection UI
            MissionSelectionBox.ItemsSource = _missionToItemId.Keys.ToList();
            MissionSelectionBox.SelectedIndex = 0;
            // Wire up the selection change event to call the ChangeMission method; this method resets the animation and starts a new mission
            MissionSelectionBox.SelectedIndexChanged += async (sender, args) => { await ChangeMission(MissionSelectionBox.SelectedItem.ToString()); };

            // Apply the elevation source
            Surface surface = new Surface();
            ElevationSource elevationSource = new ArcGISTiledElevationSource(_elevationServiceUrl);
            MySceneView.Scene.BaseSurface = surface;

            // Create and add the graphics overlay
            GraphicsOverlay sceneOverlay = new GraphicsOverlay
                SceneProperties = { SurfacePlacement = SurfacePlacement.Absolute }

            // Create a renderer to handle updating plane's orientation
            SimpleRenderer renderer3D = new SimpleRenderer();
            RendererSceneProperties renderProperties = renderer3D.SceneProperties;
            // Use expressions to keep the renderer properties updated as parameters of the rendered object
            renderProperties.HeadingExpression = "[HEADING]";
            renderProperties.PitchExpression = "[PITCH]";
            renderProperties.RollExpression = "[ROLL]";
            // Apply the renderer to the scene view's overlay
            sceneOverlay.Renderer = renderer3D;

            // Create renderer to symbolize plane and update plane orientation in the inset map
            SimpleRenderer renderer2D = new SimpleRenderer();
            // Create the symbol that will be used for the plane
            SimpleMarkerSymbol plane2DSymbol = new SimpleMarkerSymbol(SimpleMarkerSymbolStyle.Triangle, Colors.Blue, 10);
            // Apply the symbol to the renderer
            renderer2D.Symbol = plane2DSymbol;
            // Apply a rotation expression to the renderer
            renderer2D.RotationExpression = "[ANGLE]";
            // Update the inset map with a new GraphicsOverlay based on the renderer
            GraphicsOverlay insetMapOperlay = new GraphicsOverlay
                Renderer = renderer2D

            // Create placeholder graphic for showing the mission route in the inset map
            SimpleLineSymbol routeSymbol = new SimpleLineSymbol(SimpleLineSymbolStyle.Solid, Colors.Red, 2);
            _routeGraphic = new Graphic { Symbol = routeSymbol };

            // Create the plane graphic; this is symbolized as a blue triangle because of renderer implemented above
            // Create the attribute dictionary
            Dictionary<string, object> plane2DAttributes = new Dictionary<string, object>();
            // Set the angle for the plane graphic
            plane2DAttributes["ANGLE"] = 0f;
            // Create the graphic from the attributes and the initial point
            _plane2D = new Graphic(new MapPoint(0, 0, SpatialReferences.Wgs84), plane2DAttributes);
            // Add the plane graphic to the inset map via the overlay

                // Create the model graphic for the plane
                // Get the path to the 3D model
                string modelPath = GetModelPath();
                // Create the scene symbol from the path to the model
                ModelSceneSymbol plane3DSymbol = await ModelSceneSymbol.CreateAsync(new Uri(modelPath), 1.0);
                // Create the graphic with an initial location and the plane symbol
                _plane3D = new Graphic(new MapPoint(0, 0, 0, SpatialReferences.Wgs84), plane3DSymbol);
                // Add the plane to the overlay

                // Create the orbit camera controller to follow the plane
                _orbitCameraController = new OrbitGeoElementCameraController(_plane3D, 20.0)
                    CameraPitchOffset = 75.0
                MySceneView.CameraController = _orbitCameraController;

                // Start a timer; this animates the plane
                // The timespan is the length of the timer interval in milliseconds; this controls the animation speed (fps)
                Device.StartTimer(new TimeSpan(0, 0, 0, 0, 60), AnimatePlane);

                // Set the initial mission for when the sample loads
                await ChangeMission(_missionToItemId.Keys.First());
            catch (Exception e)
                await Application.Current.MainPage.DisplayAlert("Error", e.ToString(), "OK");

        private async Task ChangeMission(string mission)
            // Stop animating the current mission
            _animationTimer = false;

            // Get mission data
            _missionData = GetMissionData(mission);

            // Draw mission route on the inset
            // Create a collection of points to hold the mission
            PointCollection points = new PointCollection(SpatialReferences.Wgs84);
            // Add all of the points from the mission to the point collection
            points.AddPoints(_missionData.Select(m => m.ToMapPoint()));
            // Create a polyline to symbolize the route from the point collection
            Polyline route = new Polyline(points);
            // Update the route graphic's geometry with the newly created route polyline
            _routeGraphic.Geometry = route;
            // Update the inset map's scale
            await InsetMapView.SetViewpointScaleAsync(100000);

            // Update animation parameters
            _frameCount = _missionData.Length;
            _keyframe = 0;

            // Set the MissionPlayPause button back to the currently 'playing' state
            MissionPlayPause.Text = "Pause";

            // Restart the animation
            _animationTimer = true;

        private MissionFrame[] GetMissionData(string mission)
            // Get the path to the file
            string filePath = GetMissionFilePath(mission);

            // Read the file text
            string fileContents = File.ReadAllText(filePath);

            // Split the file contents into a list of lines
            return fileContents.Split('\n')
                // Then for each line, create a MissionFrame object
                // Then remove any null MissionFrames
                .Where(missionPart => missionPart != null)
                // Finally return that list of MissionFrames as an array

        private string GetMissionFilePath(string mission)
            string itemId = _missionToItemId[mission];
            string filename = mission + ".csv";

            return DataManager.GetDataFolder(itemId, filename);

        private bool AnimatePlane()
            // Skip doing anything if animation is paused, or if inset map view is closed
            if (!_animationTimer || double.IsNaN(InsetMapView.MapScale)) { return true; }

            // Get the next position; % prevents going out of bounds even if the keyframe value is
            //     changed unexpectedly (e.g. due to user interaction with the progress slider).
            MissionFrame currentFrame = _missionData[_keyframe % _frameCount];

            // Update the UI
            double missionProgress = _keyframe / (double)_frameCount;

            // This is needed because the event could be running on a non-UI thread
            Device.BeginInvokeOnMainThread(() =>
                // Update the progress slider; temporarily remove event subscription to avoid feedback loop
                MissionProgressBar.ValueChanged -= MissionProgressOnSeek;
                MissionProgressBar.Value = missionProgress * 100;
                MissionProgressBar.ValueChanged += MissionProgressOnSeek;

                // Update stats display
                AltitudeLabel.Text = $"{currentFrame.Elevation:F}m";
                HeadingLabel.Text = $"{currentFrame.Heading:F}�";
                PitchLabel.Text = $"{currentFrame.Pitch:F}�";
                RollLabel.Text = $"{currentFrame.Pitch:F}�";

            // Update plane's position
            _plane3D.Geometry = currentFrame.ToMapPoint();
            _plane3D.Attributes["HEADING"] = currentFrame.Heading;
            _plane3D.Attributes["PITCH"] = currentFrame.Pitch;
            _plane3D.Attributes["ROLL"] = currentFrame.Roll;

            // Update the inset map; plane symbol position
            _plane2D.Geometry = currentFrame.ToMapPoint();
            // Update inset's viewpoint and heading
            Viewpoint vp = new Viewpoint(currentFrame.ToMapPoint(), InsetMapView.MapScale,
                360 + (float)currentFrame.Heading);

            // Update the keyframe. This advances the animation

            // Restart the animation if it has finished
            if (_keyframe >= _frameCount)
                _keyframe = 0;

            // Keep the animation event going
            return true;

        private static string GetModelPath()
            return DataManager.GetDataFolder("681d6f7694644709a7c830ec57a2d72b", "Bristol.dae");

        private void MissionPlayPlauseClick(object sender, EventArgs e)
            // Get a reference to the button that sent the event
            Button playButton = (Button)sender;

            // Get the text of the button
            string playtext = playButton.Text;

            switch (playtext)
                // Resume the animation
                case "Play":
                    playButton.Text = "Pause";
                    _animationTimer = true;
                // Stop the animation
                case "Pause":
                    playButton.Text = "Play";
                    _animationTimer = false;

        private void MissionProgressOnSeek(object sender, EventArgs e)
            // Stop the animation
            _animationTimer = false;

            // Get a reference to the slider that sent the event
            Slider sliderControl = (Slider)sender;

            // Get the new mission progress
            double missionProgress = sliderControl.Value / 100.0;

            // Update the keyframe based on the progress
            _keyframe = (int)(missionProgress * _frameCount);

            // Set the MissionPlayPause button back to the currently 'playing' state
            MissionPlayPause.Text = "Pause";

            // Restart the animation
            _animationTimer = true;

        private void ToggleFollowPlane(object sender, EventArgs e)
            // Get a reference to the button
            Button cameraControlButton = (Button)sender;

            // Get the current text of the button
            string cameraControlText = cameraControlButton.Text;

            switch (cameraControlText)
                // Resume following
                case "Follow":
                    cameraControlButton.Text = "Don't Follow";
                    MySceneView.CameraController = _orbitCameraController;
                // Stop following
                case "Don't Follow":
                    cameraControlButton.Text = "Follow";
                    // Setting the scene view's camera controller to null has the effect of resetting the value to the default
                    MySceneView.CameraController = null;

        /// <summary>
        /// Private helper class represents a single frame in the animation
        /// </summary>
        private class MissionFrame
            private double Longitude { get; }
            private double Latitude { get; }
            public double Elevation { get; }
            public double Heading { get; }
            public double Pitch { get; }
            public double Roll { get; }

            /// <summary>
            /// Private constructor ensures that only the factory method (Create) can be called.
            /// </summary>
            /// <param name="missionLine">A string describing a single frame in the mission animation.</param>
            private MissionFrame(string missionLine)
                // Split the string into a list of entries (columns)
                // Example line: -156.3666517,20.6255059,999.999908,83.77659,0.000105,-47.766567
                string[] missionFrameParameters = missionLine.Split(',');

                // Throw if the line isn't valid
                if (missionFrameParameters.Length != 6)
                    throw new Exception("Invalid mission part definition");

                // Populate the object's properties from the array of parameters
                Longitude = Convert.ToDouble(missionFrameParameters[0]);
                Latitude = Convert.ToDouble(missionFrameParameters[1]);
                Elevation = Convert.ToDouble(missionFrameParameters[2]);
                Heading = Convert.ToDouble(missionFrameParameters[3]);
                Pitch = Convert.ToDouble(missionFrameParameters[4]);
                Roll = Convert.ToDouble(missionFrameParameters[5]);

            /// <summary>
            /// Creates a new MissionFrame.
            /// The private constructor + static construction method allows
            ///     for keeping the exception-handling logic for the constructor
            ///     internal to the class.
            /// </summary>
            /// <param name="missionLine">A string describing a single frame in the mission animation</param>
            /// <returns>Constructed MissionFrame or null if the line is invalid</returns>
            public static MissionFrame Create(string missionLine)
                    return new MissionFrame(missionLine);
                catch (Exception ex)
                    return null;

            public MapPoint ToMapPoint()
                return new MapPoint(Longitude, Latitude, Elevation, SpatialReferences.Wgs84);