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Geometry Class

Base class for all classes that represent geometric shapes.
Inheritance Hierarchy

Namespace:  Esri.ArcGISRuntime.Geometry
Assembly:  Esri.ArcGISRuntime (in Esri.ArcGISRuntime.dll) Version: 100.11.0
public abstract class Geometry

The Geometry type exposes the following members.

Public propertyDimension
Gets the number of dimensions for the geometry.
Public propertyCode exampleExtent
Gets the minimum enclosing Envelope of this geometry.
Public propertyCode exampleGeometryType
Gets the geometry type.
Public propertyHasCurves
Gets a value indicating whether the geometry has any curves.
Public propertyHasM
Gets a value indicating if the geometry has M.
Public propertyHasZ
Gets a value indicating if the geometry has Z.
Public propertyCode exampleIsEmpty
Gets a value indicating whether or not the geometry is empty.
Public propertyCode exampleSpatialReference
Gets the spatial reference of this geometry.
Public methodEquals
Checks if two geometries are approximately same, within some tolerance.
Public methodStatic memberCode exampleFromJson(String)
Creates a Geometry from an ArcGIS JSON representation.
Public methodStatic memberFromJson(String, SpatialReference)
Creates a geometry from an ArcGIS JSON representation.
Public methodIsEqual
Compares two geometries for exact equality. The types of geometry, order of points, all values, and the SpatialReference must all be the equal.
Public methodStatic memberIsNullOrEmpty
Indicates whether the specified Geometry is null or empty.
Public methodToJson
Converts this geometry into an ArcGIS JSON representation.

Geometry is the base class for two-dimensional (x,y) or three-dimensional (x, y, z) geometries. Objects that inherit from the Geometry class may also include a measure (m-value) for each vertex. The Geometry class provides functionality common to all types of geometry. MapPoint, Multipoint, Polyline, Polygon, and Envelope all inherit from Geometry and represent different types of shapes.

Geometry represents real-world objects by defining a shape at a specific geographic location. It is used throughout the API to represent the shapes of features and graphics, layer extents, viewpoints, and GPS locations. It is also used, for example, to define inputs and outputs for spatial analysis and geoprocessing operations and to measure distances and areas.

All types of geometry:

  • have a SpatialReference indicating the coordinate system used by its coordinates.
  • can be empty, indicating that they have no specific location or shape.
  • may have z-values and/or m-values to define elevation and measures respectively.
  • can be converted to and from JSON to be persisted or to be exchanged directly with REST services.


Most geometries are created and not changed for their lifetime. Examples include features created to be stored in a geodatabase or read from a non-editable layer, and features returned from tasks such as a spatial query, geocode operation, network trace, or geoprocessing task. Immutable geometries (geometries that cannot be changed) offer some important benefits to your app. They are inherently thread-safe, help prevent inadvertent changes, and allow for certain performance optimizations.

On the surface, immutability may appear to present a problem when attempting to edit existing geometries. Creating and updating, however, is handled by the various types of GeometryBuilderT, which are designed to represent the state of a geometry under construction while allowing modifications, thus enabling editing workflows.

Additionally, GeometryEngine offers a range of topological and relational operations and spatial transformations that read the content of existing geometries and create new geometries, for example, project, move, scale, rotate, buffer, union, and so on. GeometryEngine, provides a wide range of methods that read the content of geometries and modify that content to create new geometries. There are methods to Project(Geometry, SpatialReference), MoveGeodetic(IEnumerableMapPoint, Double, LinearUnit, Double, AngularUnit, GeodeticCurveType), Cut(Geometry, Polyline), Densify(Geometry, Double), and Generalize(Geometry, Double, Boolean) geometries.

Coordinate units

The coordinates that define a geometry are only meaningful in the context of the geometry's SpatialReference. The vertices and spatial reference together allow your app to translate a real-world object from its location on the Earth to its location on your map or scene.

In some cases, a geometry's spatial reference may not be set. A Graphic that does not have a spatial reference is drawn using the same spatial reference as the geo view to which it was added. When using GeometryBuilderT to create a Polyline or Polygon from a collection of MapPoint, you don't need to set the spatial reference of every point before you add it to the builder, as it will be assigned the spatial reference of the builder itself. In most other cases, such as when using a geometry in geometry operations or when editing a feature table, SpatialReference must be set.

Spatial reference and projection

Changing the coordinates of a geometry to have the same shape and location represented using a different SpatialReference is known as "projection" or sometimes as "reprojection". Because geometries are immutable, they do not have any member methods that project, transform, or otherwise modify their content.



Example Name: CreateGeometries

Create simple geometry types.

Code example screen shot.

// Copyright 2018 Esri.
// Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
// You may obtain a copy of the License at:
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an
// "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific
// language governing permissions and limitations under the License.

using Esri.ArcGISRuntime.Geometry;
using Esri.ArcGISRuntime.Mapping;
using Esri.ArcGISRuntime.Symbology;
using Esri.ArcGISRuntime.UI;

namespace ArcGISRuntime.WPF.Samples.CreateGeometries
        name: "Create geometries",
        category: "Geometry",
        description: "Create simple geometry types.",
        instructions: "Pan and zoom freely to see the different types of geometries placed onto the map.",
        tags: new[] { "area", "boundary", "line", "marker", "path", "shape" })]
    public partial class CreateGeometries
        public CreateGeometries()

            // Create the map, set the initial extent, and add the original point graphic.

        private void Initialize()
            // Create a map with a topographic basemap.
            Map theMap = new Map(BasemapStyle.ArcGISTopographic);

            // Assign the map to the MapView.
            MyMapView.Map = theMap;

            // Create a simple fill symbol - used to render a polygon covering Colorado.
            SimpleFillSymbol theSimpleFillSymbol = new SimpleFillSymbol(SimpleFillSymbolStyle.Cross, System.Drawing.Color.Blue, null);

            // Create a simple line symbol - used to render a polyline border between California and Nevada.
            SimpleLineSymbol theSimpleLineSymbol = new SimpleLineSymbol(SimpleLineSymbolStyle.Solid, System.Drawing.Color.Blue, 3);

            // Create a simple marker symbol - used to render multi-points for various state capital locations in the Western United States.
            SimpleMarkerSymbol theSimpleMarkerSymbol = new SimpleMarkerSymbol(SimpleMarkerSymbolStyle.Triangle, System.Drawing.Color.Blue, 14);

            // Create a simple marker symbol - used to render a map point where the Esri headquarters is located.
            SimpleMarkerSymbol theSimpleMarkerSymbol2 = new SimpleMarkerSymbol(SimpleMarkerSymbolStyle.Diamond, System.Drawing.Color.Red, 18);

            // Create a graphics overlay to hold the various graphics.
            GraphicsOverlay theGraphicsOverlays = new GraphicsOverlay();

            // Get the graphic collection from the graphics overlay.
            GraphicCollection theGraphicCollection = theGraphicsOverlays.Graphics;

            // Add a graphic to the graphic collection - polygon with a simple fill symbol.
            theGraphicCollection.Add(new Graphic(CreatePolygon(), theSimpleFillSymbol));

            // Add a graphic to the graphic collection - polyline with a simple line symbol.
            theGraphicCollection.Add(new Graphic(CreatePolyline(), theSimpleLineSymbol));

            // Add a graphic to the graphic collection - map point with a simple marker symbol.
            theGraphicCollection.Add(new Graphic(CreateMapPoint(), theSimpleMarkerSymbol2));

            // Add a graphic to the graphic collection - multi-point with a simple marker symbol.
            theGraphicCollection.Add(new Graphic(CreateMultipoint(), theSimpleMarkerSymbol));

            // Set the map views graphics overlay to the created graphics overlay.

            // Zoom to the extent of an envelope with some padding (10 pixels).
            MyMapView.SetViewpointGeometryAsync(CreateEnvelope(), 10);

        private Envelope CreateEnvelope()
            // Create an envelope that covers the extent of the western United States.
            Envelope theEnvelope = new Envelope(-123.0, 33.5, -101.0, 48.0, SpatialReferences.Wgs84);

            // Return the geometry.
            return theEnvelope;

        private Polygon CreatePolygon()
            // Create a point collection with coordinates that approximates the boundary of Colorado.
            PointCollection thePointCollection = new PointCollection(SpatialReferences.Wgs84);
            thePointCollection.Add(-109.048, 40.998);
            thePointCollection.Add(-102.047, 40.998);
            thePointCollection.Add(-102.037, 36.989);
            thePointCollection.Add(-109.048, 36.998);

            // Create a polygon from the point collection.
            Polygon thePolygon = new Polygon(thePointCollection);

            // Return the geometry.
            return thePolygon;

        private Polyline CreatePolyline()
            // Create a point collection with coordinates that approximates the border between California and Nevada.
            PointCollection thePointCollection = new PointCollection(SpatialReferences.Wgs84);
            thePointCollection.Add(-119.992, 41.989);
            thePointCollection.Add(-119.994, 38.994);
            thePointCollection.Add(-114.620, 35.0);

            // Create a polyline from the point collection.
            Polyline thePolyline = new Polyline(thePointCollection);

            // Return the geometry.
            return thePolyline;

        private MapPoint CreateMapPoint()
            // Create a map point where the Esri headquarters is located.
            MapPoint theMapPoint = new MapPoint(-117.195800, 34.056295, SpatialReferences.Wgs84);

            // Return the geometry.
            return theMapPoint;

        private Multipoint CreateMultipoint()
            // Create a point collection with coordinates representing various state capital locations in the Western United States.
            PointCollection thePointCollection = new PointCollection(SpatialReferences.Wgs84);
            // - Sacramento, CA
            thePointCollection.Add(-121.491014, 38.579065);
            // - Olympia, WA
            thePointCollection.Add(-122.891366, 47.039231);
            // - Salem, OR
            thePointCollection.Add(-123.043814, 44.93326);
            // - Carson City, NV
            thePointCollection.Add(-119.766999, 39.164885);

            // Create a multi-point from the point collection.
            Multipoint theMultipoint = new Multipoint(thePointCollection);

            // Return the geometry.
            return theMultipoint;

<UserControl x:Class="ArcGISRuntime.WPF.Samples.CreateGeometries.CreateGeometries"
        <esri:MapView x:Name="MyMapView" />
See Also
Additional Examples
Hyperlink to ExampleDescription
AddEncExchangeSetDisplay nautical charts per the ENC specification.
AddFeaturesAdd features to a feature layer.
AddGraphicsRendererA renderer allows you to change the style of all graphics in a graphics overlay by referencing a single symbol style.
AddGraphicsWithSymbolsUse a symbol style to display a graphic on a graphics overlay.
AnalyzeHotspotsUse a geoprocessing service and a set of features to identify statistically significant hot spots and cold spots.
AnalyzeViewshedCalculate a viewshed using a geoprocessing service, in this case showing what parts of a landscape are visible from points on mountainous terrain.
Animate3DGraphicAn `OrbitGeoElementCameraController` follows a graphic while the graphic's position and rotation are animated.
AnimateImageOverlayAnimate a series of images with an image overlay.
ApplyMosaicRuleApply mosaic rule to a mosaic dataset of rasters.
AuthorMapCreate and save a map as an ArcGIS `PortalItem` (i.e. web map).
BrowseWfsLayersBrowse a WFS service for layers and add them to the map.
BufferCreate a buffer around a map point and display the results as a `Graphic`
BufferListGenerate multiple individual buffers or a single unioned buffer around multiple points.
ChangeBlendRendererBlend a hillshade with a raster by specifying the elevation data. The resulting raster looks similar to the original raster, but with some terrain shading, giving it a textured look.
ChangeEncDisplaySettingsConfigure the display of ENC content.
ChangeFeatureLayerRendererChange the appearance of a feature layer with a renderer.
ChangeStretchRendererUse a stretch renderer to enhance the visual contrast of raster data for analysis.
ChangeSublayerRendererApply a renderer to a sublayer.
ChangeViewpointSet the map view to a new viewpoint.
ChooseCameraControllerControl the behavior of the camera in a scene.
ClipGeometryClip a geometry with another geometry.
ClosestFacilityFind a route to the closest facility from a location.
ClosestFacilityStaticFind routes from several locations to the respective closest facility.
ConvexHullCreate a convex hull for a given set of points. The convex hull is a polygon with shortest perimeter that encloses a set of points. As a visual analogy, consider a set of points as nails in a board. The convex hull of the points would be like a rubber band stretched around the outermost nails.
ConvexHullListGenerate convex hull polygon(s) from multiple input geometries.
CreateAndSaveKmlFileConstruct a KML document and save it as a KMZ file.
CreateFeatureCollectionLayerCreate a Feature Collection Layer from a Feature Collection Table, and add it to a map.
CreateGeometriesCreate simple geometry types.
CustomDictionaryStyleUse a custom dictionary style (.stylx) to symbolize features using a variety of attribute values.
CutGeometryCut a geometry along a polyline.
DeleteFeaturesDelete features from an online feature service.
DensifyAndGeneralizeA multipart geometry can be densified by adding interpolated points at regular intervals. Generalizing multipart geometry simplifies it while preserving its general shape. Densifying a multipart geometry adds more vertices at regular intervals.
DictionaryRendererGraphicsOverlayThis sample demonstrates applying a dictionary renderer to graphics, in order to display military symbology without the need for a feature table.
DisplayKmlDisplay KML from a URL, portal item, or local KML file.
DisplaySubtypeFeatureLayerDisplays a composite layer of all the subtype values in a feature class.
DisplayUtilityAssociationsCreate graphics for utility associations in a utility network.
DisplayWfsDisplay a layer from a WFS service, requesting only features for the current extent.
EditAndSyncFeaturesSynchronize offline edits with a feature service.
EditBranchVersioningCreate, query and edit a specific server version using service geodatabase.
EditFeatureLinkedAnnotationEdit feature attributes which are linked to annotation through an expression.
EditKmlGroundOverlayEdit the values of a KML ground overlay.
ExportTilesDownload tiles to a local tile cache file stored on the device.
FeatureLayerGeodatabaseDisplay features from a local geodatabase.
FeatureLayerQueryFind features in a feature table which match an SQL query.
FeatureLayerRenderingModeSceneRender features in a scene statically or dynamically by setting the feature layer rendering mode.
FeatureLayerSelectionSelect features in a feature layer.
FeatureLayerShapefileOpen a shapefile stored on the device and display it as a feature layer with default symbology.
FindAddressFind the location for an address.
FindPlaceFind places of interest near a location or within a specific area.
FindRouteDisplay directions for a route between two points.
FindServiceAreaFind the service area within a network from a given point.
FindServiceAreasForMultipleFacilitiesFind the service areas of several facilities from a feature service.
FormatCoordinatesFormat coordinates in a variety of common notations.
GenerateGeodatabaseGenerate a local geodatabase from an online feature service.
GenerateOfflineMapTake a web map offline.
GenerateOfflineMapWithOverridesTake a web map offline with additional options for each layer.
GeodatabaseTransactionsUse transactions to manage how changes are committed to a geodatabase.
GeodesicOperationsCalculate a geodesic path between two points and measure its distance.
GetElevationAtPointGet the elevation for a given point on a surface in a scene.
GroupLayersGroup a collection of layers together and toggle their visibility as a group.
IdentifyGraphicsDisplay an alert message when a graphic is clicked.
IdentifyKmlFeaturesShow a callout with formatted content for a KML feature.
IdentifyRasterCellGet the cell value of a local raster at the tapped location and display the result in a callout.
LineOfSightGeoElementShow a line of sight between two moving objects.
ListKmlContentsList the contents of a KML file.
ListTransformationsGet a list of suitable transformations for projecting a geometry between two spatial references with different horizontal datums.
LocalServerFeatureLayerStart a local feature service and display its features in a map.
LocalServerGeoprocessingCreate contour lines from local raster data using a local geoprocessing package `.gpk` and the contour geoprocessing tool.
LocalServerMapImageLayerStart the Local Server and Local Map Service, create an ArcGIS Map Image Layer from the Local Map Service, and add it to a map.
MapImageLayerTablesFind features in a spatial table related to features in a non-spatial table.
MapImageSublayerQueryFind features in a sublayer based on attributes and location.
MobileMapSearchAndRouteDisplay maps and use locators to enable search and routing offline using a Mobile Map Package.
NavigateRouteUse a routing service to navigate between points.
NavigateRouteReroutingNavigate between two points and dynamically recalculate an alternate route when the original route is unavailable.
NearestVertexFind the closest vertex and coordinate of a geometry to a point.
OfflineBasemapByReferenceUse the `OfflineMapTask` to take a web map offline, but instead of downloading an online basemap, use one which is already on the device.
OfflineGeocodeGeocode addresses to locations and reverse geocode locations to addresses offline.
OfflineRoutingSolve a route on-the-fly using offline data.
PerformValveIsolationTraceRun a filtered trace to locate operable features that will isolate an area from the flow of network resources.
ProjectProject a point from one spatial reference to another.
ProjectWithSpecificTransformationProject a point from one coordinate system to another using a specific transformation step.
QueryFeatureCountAndExtentZoom to features matching a query and count the features in the current visible extent.
RasterColormapRendererApply a colormap renderer to a raster.
RasterHillshadeUse a hillshade renderer on a raster.
RasterLayerFileCreate and use a raster layer made from a local raster file.
RasterLayerGeoPackageDisplay a raster contained in a GeoPackage.
RasterLayerRasterFunctionLoad a raster from a service, then apply a function to it.
RasterRenderingRuleDisplay a raster on a map and apply different rendering rules to that raster.
RasterRgbRendererApply an RGB renderer to a raster layer to enhance feature visibility.
ReadShapefileMetadataRead a shapefile and display its metadata.
RenderPictureMarkersUse pictures for markers.
RenderSimpleMarkersShow a simple marker symbol on a map.
ReverseGeocodeUse an online service to find the address for a tapped point.
RouteAroundBarriersFind a route that reaches all stops without crossing any barriers.
SceneLayerSelectionIdentify features in a scene to select.
SceneLayerUrlDisplay an ArcGIS scene layer from a URL.
ScenePropertiesExpressionsUpdate the orientation of a graphic using expressions based on its attributes.
SceneSymbolsShow various kinds of 3D symbols in a scene.
SelectEncFeaturesSelect features in an ENC layer.
ServiceFeatureTableCacheDisplay a feature layer from a service using the **on interaction cache** feature request mode.
ServiceFeatureTableNoCacheDisplay a feature layer from a service using the **no cache** feature request mode.
SetInitialMapAreaDisplay the map at an initial viewpoint representing a bounding geometry.
ShowCalloutShow a callout with the latitude and longitude of user-tapped points.
ShowLocationHistoryDisplay your location history on the map.
ShowPopupShow predefined popups from a web map.
SimpleRenderersDisplay common symbols for all graphics in a graphics overlay with a renderer.
SketchOnMapUse the Sketch Editor to edit or sketch a new point, line, or polygon geometry on to a map.
SpatialOperationsFind the union, intersection, or difference of two geometries.
SpatialRelationshipsDetermine spatial relationships between two geometries.
StatisticalQueryQuery a table to get aggregated statistics back for a specific field.
StyleWmsLayerChange the style of a Web Map Service (WMS) layer.
SurfacePlacementsPosition graphics relative to a surface using different surface placement modes.
SymbolsFromMobileStyleCombine multiple symbols from a mobile style file into a single symbol.
TraceUtilityNetworkDiscover connected features in a utility network using connected, subnetwork, upstream, and downstream traces.
UpdateGeometriesUpdate a feature's location in an online feature service.
UseDistanceCompositeSymChange a graphic's symbol based on the camera's proximity to it.
ViewPointCloudDataOfflineDisplay local 3D point cloud data.
ViewshedGeoElementAnalyze the viewshed for an object (GeoElement) in a scene.
ViewshedLocationPerform a viewshed analysis from a defined vantage point.
WfsXmlQueryLoad a WFS feature table using an XML query.
WmsIdentifyIdentify features in a WMS layer and display the associated popup content.
WMSLayerUrlDisplay a WMS layer using a WMS service URL.