arcgis.geometry module¶
The arcgis.geometry module defines useful geometry types for working with geographic information and GIS functionality. It provides functions which use geometric types as input and output as well as functions for easily converting geometries between different representations.
Several functions accept geometries represented as dictionaries and the geometry objects in this module behave like them as well as support the ‘.’ (dot) notation providing attribute access.
 ..note::
It is recommended to have ArcPy or Shapely downloaded for most Geometry methods and property usage.
Examples:
# Example Point
>>> pt = Point({"x" : 118.15, "y" : 33.80, "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326}})
>>> print (pt.is_valid)
True
>>> print (pt.type) # POINT
'POINT'
>>> print (pt)
'{"x" : 118.15, "y" : 33.80, "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326}}'
>>> print (pt.x, pt.y)
(118.15,33.80)
# Example Polyline
>>> line = {
"paths" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832]],
[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755]]],
"spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326}
}
>>> polyline = Polyline(line)
>>> print(polyline)
'{"paths" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755]]],"spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326}}'
>>> print(polyline.is_valid)
True
# Example INVALID Geometry
>>> line = {
"paths" : [[[97.06138],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832]],
[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755]]],
"spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326}
}
>>> polyline = Polyline(line)
>>> print(polyline)
'''{"paths" : [[[97.06138],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832]],
[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755]]],"spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326}}'''
>>>print(polyline.is_valid)
False
The same patterna can be repeated for Polygon, MultiPoint and SpatialReference.
You can create a Geometry even when you don’t know the exact type. The Geometry constructor can find the geometry type and returns the correct type as the example below demonstrates:
# Example Unknown Geometry Type
>>> geom = Geometry({
"rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832],
[97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749],
[97.06326,32.759]]],
"spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326}
})
>>> print (geom.type) # Polygon
'Polygon'
>>> print(isinstance(geom, Polygon)
True
Point¶

class
arcgis.geometry.
Point
(iterable=None, **kwargs)¶ The
Point
class contains x and y fields along with aSpatialReference
field. APoint
can also contain m and z fields. APoint
is empty when its x field is present and has the value null or the string NaN. An emptypoint
has no location in space.
coordinates
()¶ Retrieves the coordinates of the
Point
as an np.array#Usage Example >>> coords = point.coordinates() >>> coords [x1,y1,m1,z1]
 Returns
An np.array containing coordinate values

svg
(scale_factor=1, fill_color=None)¶ Returns a SVG (Scalable Vector Graphic) circle element for the
Point
geometry. SVG defines vectorbased graphics in XML format.Keys
Description
scale_factor
An optional float. Multiplication factor for the SVG circle diameter. Default is 1.
fill_color
An optional string. Hex string for fill color. Default is to use “#66cc99” if geometry is valid, and “#ff3333” if invalid.
 Returns
An SVG circle element

property
type
¶ Gets the type of the current
Point
object.

MultiPoint¶

class
arcgis.geometry.
MultiPoint
(iterable=None, **kwargs)¶ A
multipoint
contains an array ofPoint
, along with aSpatialReference
field. Amultipoint
can also have booleanvalued hasZ and hasM fields. These fields control the interpretation of elements of the points array.Note
Omitting an hasZ or hasM field is equivalent to setting it to false.
Each element of the points array is itself an array of two, three, or four numbers. It will have two elements for 2D points, two or three elements for 2D points with Ms, three elements for 3D points, and three or four elements for 3D points with Ms. In all cases, the x coordinate is at index 0 of a point’s array, and the y coordinate is at index 1. For 2D points with Ms, the m coordinate, if present, is at index 2. For 3D points, the Z coordinate is required and is at index 2. For 3D points with Ms, the Z coordinate is at index 2, and the M coordinate, if present, is at index 3.
Note
An empty multipoint has a points field with no elements. Empty points are ignored.

coordinates
()¶ Retrieves the coordinates of the
MultiPoint
as an np.array#Usage Example >>> coords = multiPoint.coordinates() >>> coords [ [x1,y1,m1,z1], [x2,y2,m2,z2],...]
 Returns
An np.array containing coordinate values for each point

svg
(scale_factor=1.0, fill_color=None)¶ Returns a group of SVG (Scalable Vector Graphic) circle element for the
MultiPoint
geometry.Keys
Description
scale_factor
An optional float. Multiplication factor for the SVG circle diameter. Default is 1.
fill_color
An optional string. Hex string for fill color. Default is to use “#66cc99” if geometry is valid, and “#ff3333” if invalid.
 Returns
A group of SVG circle elements

property
type
¶ Gets the type of the current
MultiPoint
object.

Polyline¶

class
arcgis.geometry.
Polyline
(iterable=None, **kwargs)¶ The
Polyline
contains an array of paths or curvePaths and aSpatialReference
. ForPolylines
with curvePaths, see the sections on JSON curve object andPolyline
with curve. Each path is represented as an array ofPoint
, and each point in the path is represented as an array of numbers. APolyline
can also have booleanvalued hasM and hasZ fields.Note
See the description of
MultiPoint
for details on how the point arrays are interpreted.An empty
PolyLine
is represented with an empty array for the paths field. Nulls and/or NaNs embedded in an otherwise defined coordinate stream forPolylines
andPolygon
objects is a syntax error.
coordinates
()¶ Retrieves the coordinates of the
Polyline
as a np.array#Usage Example >>> coords = polyLine.coordinates() >>> coords [ [x1,y1,m1,z1], [x2,y2,m2,z2],...]
 Returns
An np.array containing coordinate values

svg
(scale_factor=1, stroke_color=None)¶ Retrieves SVG (Scalable Vector Graphic) polyline element for the LineString geometry.
Keys
Description
scale_factor
An optional float. Multiplication factor for the SVG strokewidth. Default is 1.
stroke_color
An optional string. Hex string for fill color. Default is to use “#66cc99” if geometry is valid, and “#ff3333” if invalid.
 Returns
The SVG polyline element for the LineString Geometry

property
type
¶ Gets the type of the current
Polyline
object.

Polygon¶

class
arcgis.geometry.
Polygon
(iterable=None, **kwargs)¶ The
Polygon
contains an array of rings or curveRings and aSpatialReference
. ForPolygons
with curveRings, see the sections on JSON curve object andPolygon
with curve. Each ring is represented as an array ofPoint
. The first point of each ring is always the same as the last point. Each point in the ring is represented as an array of numbers. APolygon
can also have booleanvalued hasM and hasZ fields.An empty
Polygon
is represented with an empty array for the rings field. Null and/or NaNs embedded in an otherwise defined coordinate stream forPolyline
andPolygons
is a syntax error. Polygons should be topologically simple. Exterior rings are oriented clockwise, while holes are oriented counterclockwise. Rings can touch at a vertex or selftouch at a vertex, but there should be no other intersections. Polygons returned by services are topologically simple. When drawing a polygon, use the evenodd fill rule. The evenodd fill rule will guarantee that the polygon will draw correctly even if the ring orientation is not as described above.
coordinates
()¶ Retrieves the coordinates of the
Polygon
as an np.array#Usage Example >>> coords = polygon.coordinates() >>> coords [ [x1,y1,m1,z1], [x2,y2,m2,z2],...,[x1,y1,m1,z1] ]
 Returns
An np.array containing coordinate values

svg
(scale_factor=1, fill_color=None)¶ The
svg
method retrieves SVG (Scalable Vecotr Graphic) polygon element. SVG defines vectorbased graphics in XML format. Returns
The SVG polygon element

property
type
¶ Gets the type of the current
Polyline
object.

Envelope¶

class
arcgis.geometry.
Envelope
(iterable=None, **kwargs)¶ The
Envelope
class represents a rectangle defined by a range of values for each coordinate and attribute. It also has aSpatialReference
field. The fields for the z and m ranges are optional.Note
An empty
Envelope
has no points in space and is defined by the presence of an xmin field a null value or a NaN string.
coordinates
()¶ The
coordinates
method retrieves the coordinates of theEnvelope
as a np.array#Usage Example >>> coords = envelope.coordinates() >>> coords [ [x1,y1,m1,z1], [x2,y2,m2,z2],...]
 Returns
An np.array containing coordinate values

property
geohash
¶ The
geohash
method retrieves a geohash string of the extent of the ``Envelope. Returns
A geohash String

property
geohash_covers
¶ The
geohash_covers
method retrieves a list of up to the four longest geohash strings that fit within the extent of theEnvelope
. Returns
A list of geohash Strings

property
geohash_neighbors
¶ Gets a list of the geohash neighbor strings for the extent of the
Envelope
. Returns
A list of geohash neighbor Strings

property
height
¶ Gets the extent height value.
 Returns
The extent height value

svg
(scale_factor=1, fill_color=None)¶ Returns a SVG (Scalable Vector Graphic) envelope element for the
Envelope
geometry.Keys
Description
scale_factor
An optional float. Multiplication factor for the SVG circle diameter. Default is 1.
fill_color
An optional string. Hex string for fill color. Default is to use “#66cc99” if geometry is valid, and “#ff3333” if invalid.
 Returns
A SVG envelope element

property
type
¶ Gets the type of the current
Polyline
object.

property
width
¶ Gets the extent width value.
 Returns
The extent width value

SpatialReference¶

class
arcgis.geometry.
SpatialReference
(iterable=None, **kwargs)¶ A
SpatialReference
object can be defined using a wellknown ID (wkid) or wellknown text (wkt). The default tolerance and resolution values for the associated coordinate system are used.Note
The x, y and z tolerance values are 1 mm or the equivalent in the unit of the coordinate system. If the coordinate system uses feet, the tolerance is 0.00328083333 ft. The resolution values are 10x smaller or 1/10 the tolerance values. Thus, 0.0001 m or 0.0003280833333 ft. For geographic coordinate systems using degrees, the equivalent of a mm at the equator is used.
The wellknown ID (WKID) for a given spatial reference can occasionally change. For example, the WGS 1984 Web Mercator (Auxiliary Sphere) projection was originally assigned WKID 102100, but was later changed to 3857. To ensure backward compatibility with older spatial data servers, the JSON wkid property will always be the value that was originally assigned to an SR when it was created. An additional property, latestWkid, identifies the current WKID value (as of a given software release) associated with the same spatial reference.
A
SpatialReference
object can optionally include a definition for a vertical coordinate system (VCS), which is used to interpret the zvalues of a geometry. A VCS defines units of measure, the location of z = 0, and whether the positive vertical direction is up or down. When a vertical coordinate system is specified with a WKID, the same caveat as mentioned above applies.Note
There are two VCS WKID properties: vcsWkid and latestVcsWkid. A VCS WKT can also be embedded in the string value of the wkt property. In other words, the WKT syntax can be used to define an SR with both horizontal and vertical components in one string. If either part of an SR is custom, the entire SR will be serialized with only the wkt property.
Note
Starting at 10.3, Image Service supports image coordinate systems.

property
as_arcpy
¶ The
as_arcpy
property retrieves the class as anarcpy SpatialReference
object. Returns
An
arcpy SpatialReference
object

svg
(scale_factor=1, fill_color=None)¶ Retrieves SVG (Scalable Vector Graphic) polygon element for a
SpatialReference
field. Returns
The SVG element

property
type
¶ Gets the type of the current
Point
object.

property
Geometry¶

class
arcgis.geometry.
Geometry
(iterable=None, **kwargs)¶ The base class for all geometries.
You can create a Geometry even when you don’t know the exact type. The Geometry constructor is able to figure out the geometry type and returns the correct type as the example below demonstrates:
#Usage Example: Unknown Geometry >>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> print (geom.type) # POLYGON >>> print (isinstance(geom, Polygon) # True

property
EWKT
¶ Gets the
extended wellknown text
(EWKT) representation for OGC geometry. It provides a portable representation of a geometry value as a text string.Note
Any true curves in the geometry will be densified into approximate curves in the WKT string.
 Returns
A String

property
JSON
¶ The
JSON
method retrieves an Esri JSON representation of theGeometry
object as a string. Returns
A string representing a
Geometry
object

property
WKB
¶ Gets the
wellknown binary
(WKB) representation for OGC geometry. It provides a portable representation of a geometry value as a contiguous stream of bytes. Returns
bytes

property
WKT
¶ Gets the
wellknown text
(WKT
) representation for OGC geometry. It provides a portable representation of a geometry value as a text string.Note
Any true curves in the geometry will be densified into approximate curves in the WKT string.
 Returns
A string

angle_distance_to
(second_geometry, method='GEODESIC')¶ The
angle_distance_to
method retrieves a tuple of angle and distance to anotherPoint
using a measurement type.Note
The
angle_distance_to
method requires ArcPy. If ArcPy is not installed, none is returned.Argument
Description
second_geometry
Required Geometry. An
Geometry
object.method
Optional String. PLANAR measurements reflect the projection of geographic data onto the 2D surface (in other words, they will not take into account the curvature of the earth). GEODESIC, GREAT_ELLIPTIC, LOXODROME, and PRESERVE_SHAPE measurement types may be chosen as an alternative, if desired.
 Returns
A tuple of angle and distance to another
Point
using a measurement type.
>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom.angle_distance_to(second_geometry = geom2, >>> method="PLANAR") {54.5530, 1000.1111}

property
area
¶ The
area
method retrieves the area of aPolygon
feature. The units of the returned area are based off theSpatialReference
field.Note
None for all other feature types.
>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom.area 1.869999999973911e06
 Returns
A float

property
as_arcpy
¶ The
as_arcpy
method retrieves the Geometry as an ArcPy Geometry.If ArcPy is not installed, none is returned.
Note
The
as_arcpy
method requires ArcPy Returns
An
Geometry
object

property
as_shapely
¶ The
as_shapely
method retrieves a shapelyGeometry
object Returns
A shapely
Geometry
object. If shapely is not installed, None is returned

boundary
()¶ The
boundary
method constructs the boundary of theGeometry
object. Returns
A
Geometry
object

buffer
(distance)¶ The buffer method constructs a
Polygon
at a specified distance from theGeometry
object.Note
The
buffer
method requires ArcPyArgument
Description
distance
Required float. The buffer distance. The buffer distance is in the same units as the geometry that is being buffered. A negative distance can only be specified against a polygon geometry.
 Returns
A
Polygon
object

property
centroid
¶ The
centroid
method retrieves the center of theGeometry
objectNote
The
centroid
method requires ArcPy or Shapely>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom.centroid (97.06258999999994, 32.754333333000034)
 Returns
A tuple(x,y) indicating the center

clip
(envelope)¶ The
clip
method constructs the intersection of theGeometry
object and the specified extent.Note
The
clip
method requires ArcPy. If ArcPy is not installed, none is returned.Argument
Description
envelope
Required tuple. The tuple must have (XMin, YMin, XMax, YMax) each value represents the lower left bound and upper right bound of the extent.
 Returns
The
Geometry
object clipped to the extent

contains
(second_geometry, relation=None)¶ Indicates if the base
Geometry
object contains the comparisonGeometry
object.Note
The
contain
method requires ArcPy/ShapelyArgument
Description
second_geometry
Required
Geometry
object. A second geometryrelation
Optional string. The spatial relationship type.
BOUNDARY  Relationship has no restrictions for interiors or boundaries.
CLEMENTINI  Interiors of geometries must intersect. Specifying CLEMENTINI is equivalent to specifying None. This is the default.
PROPER  Boundaries of geometries must not intersect.
 Returns
A boolean indicating containment (True), or no containment (False)
>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom.contains(second_geometry = geom2, relation="CLEMENTINI") True

convex_hull
()¶ Constructs the
Geometry
object that is the minimal boundingPolygon
such that all outer angles are convex. Returns
A
Geometry
object

crosses
(second_geometry)¶ Indicates if the two
Geometry
objects intersect in a geometry of a lesser shape type.Note
The
crosses
method requires ArcPy/ShapelyArgument
Description
second_geometry
Required
Geometry
object. A second geometry Returns
A boolean indicating yes (True), or no (False)

cut
(cutter)¶ Splits this
Geometry
object into a part left of the cuttingPolyline
and a part right of it.Note
The
cut
method requires ArcPyArgument
Description
cutter
Required
Polyline
. The cutting polyline geometry Returns
a list of two
Geometry
objects

densify
(method, distance, deviation)¶ Creates a new
Geometry
object with added verticesNote
The
densify
method requires ArcPyArgument
Description
method
Required String. The type of densification:
DISTANCE
,ANGLE
, orGEODESIC
distance
Required float. The maximum distance between vertices. The actual distance between vertices will usually be less than the maximum distance as new vertices will be evenly distributed along the original segment. If using a type of DISTANCE or ANGLE, the distance is measured in the units of the geometry’s spatial reference. If using a type of GEODESIC, the distance is measured in meters.
deviation
Required float.
Densify
uses straight lines to approximate curves. You use deviation to control the accuracy of this approximation. The deviation is the maximum distance between the new segment and the original curve. The smaller its value, the more segments will be required to approximate the curve. Returns
A new
Geometry
object
>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom2 = geom.densify(method = "GEODESIC", distance = 1244.0, deviation = 100.0)

difference
(second_geometry)¶ Constructs the
Geometry
object that is composed only of the region unique to the base geometry but not part of the other geometry.Note
The
difference
method requires ArcPy/ShapelyArgument
Description
second_geometry
Required
Geometry
object. A second geometry Returns
A
Geometry
object

disjoint
(second_geometry)¶ Indicates if the base and comparison
Geometry
objects share noPoint
objects in common.Note
The
disjoint
method requires ArcPy/ShapelyArgument
Description
second_geometry
Required
Geometry
object. A second geometry Returns
A boolean indicating no
Point
objects in common (True), or some in common (False)

distance_to
(second_geometry)¶ Retrieves the minimum distance between two
Geometry
objects. If the geometries intersect, the minimum distance is 0.Note
Both geometries must have the same projection.
Note
The
distance_to
method requires ArcPy/ShapelyArgument
Description
second_geometry
Required
Geometry
object. A second geometry Returns
A float

equals
(second_geometry)¶ Indicates if the base and comparison
Geometry
objects are of the same shape type and define the same set of points in the plane. This is a 2D comparison only; M and Z values are ignored.Note
The
equals
method requires ArcPy or ShapelyArgument
Description
second_geometry
Required
Geometry
. A second geometry Returns
Boolean indicating True if geometries are equal else False

property
extent
¶ Get the extent of the
Geometry
object as a tuple containing xmin, ymin, xmax, ymaxNote
The
extent
method requires ArcPy or Shapely>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom.extent (97.06326, 32.749, 97.06124, 32.837)
 Returns
A tuple

property
first_point
¶ The
first
method retrieves first coordinate point of the geometry.>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom.first_point {'x': 97.06138, 'y': 32.837, 'spatialReference': {'wkid': 4326, 'latestWkid': 4326}}
 Returns
A
Geometry
object

classmethod
from_shapely
(shapely_geometry, spatial_reference=None)¶ Creates a Python API Geometry object from a Shapely geometry object.
 ..note::
Must have shapely installed
 Returns
A
Geometry
object
# Usage Example: importing shapely geometry object and setting spatial reference to WGS84 Geometry.from_shapely( shapely_geometry=shapely_geometry_object, spatial_reference={'wkid': 4326} )

generalize
(max_offset)¶ Creates a new simplified
Geometry
object using a specified maximum offset tolerance.Note
The
generalize
method requires ArcPy or Shapely**Argument
Description
max_offset
Required float. The maximum offset tolerance.
 Returns
A
Geometry
object

property
geoextent
¶ The
geoextent
property retrieves the current feature’s extent#Usage Example >>> g = Geometry({...}) >>> g.geoextent (1,2,3,4)
 Returns
tuple

property
geometry_type
¶ 
>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom.geometry_type 'polygon'
 Returns
A string indicating the geometry type

get_area
(method, units=None)¶ Retrieves the area of the
Geometry
using a measurement type.Note
The
get_area
method requires ArcPy or Shapely**Argument
Description
method
Required String. LANAR measurements reflect the projection of geographic data onto the 2D surface (in other words, they will not take into account the curvature of the earth). GEODESIC, GREAT_ELLIPTIC, LOXODROME, and PRESERVE_SHAPE measurement types may be chosen as an alternative, if desired.
units
Optional String. Areal unit of measure keywords: ACRES  ARES  HECTARES  SQUARECENTIMETERS  SQUAREDECIMETERS  SQUAREINCHES  SQUAREFEET  SQUAREKILOMETERS  SQUAREMETERS  SQUAREMILES  SQUAREMILLIMETERS  SQUAREYARDS
 Returns
A float representing the area of the
Geometry
object

get_length
(method, units)¶ Retrieves the length of the
Geometry
using a measurement type.Note
The
get_length
method requires ArcPy or ShapelyArgument
Description
method
Required String. PLANAR measurements reflect the projection of geographic data onto the 2D surface (in other words, they will not take into account the curvature of the earth). GEODESIC, GREAT_ELLIPTIC, LOXODROME, and PRESERVE_SHAPE measurement types may be chosen as an alternative, if desired.
units
Required String. Linear unit of measure keywords: CENTIMETERS  DECIMETERS  FEET  INCHES  KILOMETERS  METERS  MILES  MILLIMETERS  NAUTICALMILES  YARDS
 Returns
A float representing the length of the
Geometry
object

get_part
(index=None)¶ Retrieves an array of
Point
objects for a particular part of aGeometry
object or an array containing a number of arrays, one for each part.Note
The
get_part
method requires ArcPyArgument
Description
index
Required Integer. The index position of the
Geometry
object. Returns
A
Geometry
object

property
has_m
¶ The
has_m
method determines if the geometry has a M value. Returns
A boolean indicating yes (True), or no (False)

property
has_z
¶ The
has_z
method determines if the geometry has a Z value. Returns
A boolean indicating yes (True), or no (False)

property
hull_rectangle
¶ The
hull_rectangle
method retrieves the spacedelimited string of the coordinate pairs of the convex hull rectangle.Note
The
hullrectangle
method requires ArcPy or Shapely>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom.hull_rectangle '97.06153 32.749 97.0632940971127 32.7490060186843 97.0629938635673 32.8370055061228 97.0612297664546 32.8369994874385'
 Returns
A spacedelimited string

intersect
(second_geometry, dimension=1)¶ Constructs a
Geometry
object that is the geometric intersection of the two input geometries. Different dimension values can be used to create different shape types. The intersection of two geometries of the same shape type is a geometry containing only the regions of overlap between the original geometries.Note
The
intersect
method requires ArcPy or ShapelyArgument
Description
second_geometry
Required
Geometry
object. A second geometrydimension
Required Integer. The topological dimension (shape type) of the resulting geometry.
1 A zerodimensional geometry (
Point
orMultiPoint
).2 A onedimensional geometry (
Polyline
).4 A twodimensional geometry (
Polygon
).
 Returns
A boolean indicating an intersection (True), or no intersection (False)
>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom.intersect(second_geometry = geom2, dimension = 4) True

property
is_empty
¶ Determines if the geometry is empty.
 Returns
A boolean indicating empty (True), or filled (False)

property
is_multipart
¶ The
is_multipart
method determines if the number of parts for this geometry is more than one.Note
The
is_multipart
method requires ArcPy or Shapely>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom.is_multipart True
 Returns
A boolean indicating yes (True), or no (False)

property
label_point
¶ Gets the
Point
at which the label is located. Thelabel_point
is always located within or on a feature.Note
The
label_point
method requires ArcPy or Shapely>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom.label_point {'x': 97.06258999999994, 'y': 32.754333333000034, 'spatialReference': {'wkid': 4326, 'latestWkid': 4326}}
 Returns
A
Point
object

property
last_point
¶ The
last_point
method retrieves the last coordinatePoint
of the feature.>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom.last_point {'x': 97.06326, 'y': 32.759, 'spatialReference': {'wkid': 4326, 'latestWkid': 4326}}
 Returns
A
Point
object

property
length
¶ Gets length of the linear feature. The length units is the same as the
SpatialReference
field.Note
The
length
method returns zero forPoint
andMultiPoint
feature types.Note
The
length
method requires ArcPy or Shapely>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom.length 0.03033576008004027
 Returns
A float

property
length3D
¶ The
length3D
method retrieves the 3D length of the linear feature. Zero for point and multipoint The length units is the same as theSpatialReference
field.Note
The
length3D
method returns zero forPoint
andMultiPoint
feature types.Note
The
length3D
method requires ArcPy or Shapely>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom.length3D 0.03033576008004027
 Returns
A float

measure_on_line
(second_geometry, as_percentage=False)¶ Retrieves a measure from the start
Point
of this line to thein_point
.Note
The
measure_on_line
method requires ArcPyArgument
Description
second_geometry
Required
Geometry
object. A second geometryas_percentage
Optional Boolean. If False, the measure will be returned as a distance; if True, the measure will be returned as a percentage.
 Returns
A float
>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom.measure_on_line(second_geometry = geom2, as_percentage = True) 0.33

overlaps
(second_geometry)¶ Indicates if the intersection of the two
Geometry
objects has the same shape type as one of the input geometries and is not equivalent to either of the input geometries.Note
The
overlaps
method requires ArcPy or ShapelyArgument
Description
second_geometry
Required
Geometry
object. A second geometry Returns
A boolean indicating an intersection of same shape type (True), or different type (False)

property
part_count
¶ The
part_count
method retrieves the number ofGeometry
parts for the feature.>>> geom = Geometry({ "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], [97.06326,32.759]]], "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} }) >>> geom.part_count 1
 Returns
An Integer representing the amount of
Geometry
parts

property
point_count
¶ The
point_count
method retrieves total number ofPoint
objects for the feature.>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom.point_count 9
 Returns
An Integer representing the amount of
Point
objects

point_from_angle_and_distance
(angle, distance, method='GEODESCIC')¶ Retrieves a
Point
at a given angle and distance, in degrees and meters, using the specified measurement type.Note
The
point_from_angle_and_distance
method requires ArcPyArgument
Description
angle
Required Float. The angle in degrees to the returned point.
distance
Required Float. The distance in meters to the returned point.
method
Optional String. PLANAR measurements reflect the projection of geographic data onto the 2D surface (in other words, they will not take into account the curvature of the earth). GEODESIC, GREAT_ELLIPTIC, LOXODROME, and PRESERVE_SHAPE measurement types may be chosen as an alternative, if desired.
 Returns
A
Point
object
>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> point = geom.point_from_angle_and_distance(angle=60, distance = 100000, method = "PLANAR") >>> point.type "POINT"

position_along_line
(value, use_percentage=False)¶ Retrieves a
Point
on a line at a specified distance from the beginning of the line.Note
The
position_along_line
method requires ArcPy or ShapelyArgument
Description
value
Required Float. The distance along the line.
use_percentage
Optional Boolean. The distance may be specified as a fixed unit of measure or a ratio of the length of the line. If True, value is used as a percentage; if False, value is used as a distance.
Note
For percentages, the value should be expressed as a double from 0.0 (0%) to 1.0 (100%).
 Returns
A
Geometry
object

project_as
(spatial_reference, transformation_name=None)¶ Projects a
Geometry
object and optionally applies ageotransformation
.Note
The
project_as
method requires ArcPy or pyproj>=1.9 and PROJ.4Argument
Description
spatial_reference
Required SpatialReference. The new spatial reference. This can be a
SpatialReference
object or the coordinate system name.transformation_name
Required String. The
geotransformation
name. Returns
A
Geometry
object
>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom2 = geom.project_as(spatial_reference="GCS", transformation_name = "transformation") >>> geom2.type arcgis.geometry.Geometry

query_point_and_distance
(second_geometry, use_percentage=False)¶ Finds the
Point
on thePolyline
nearest to the in_point and the distance between those points.query_point_and_distance
retrieves information about the side of the line the in_point is on as well as the distance along the line where the nearest point occurs.Note
The
query_point_and_distance
method requires ArcPyArgument
Description
second_geometry
Required
Geometry
object. A second geometryas_percentage
Optional boolean  if False, the measure will be returned as distance, True, measure will be a percentage
 Returns
A tuple of the point and the distance

rotate
(theta, inplace=False)¶ Rotates a
Geometry
object counterclockwise by a given angle.Argument
Description
theta
Required Float. The rotation angle.
inplace
Optional Boolean. If True, the value is updated in the object, False creates a new object
 Returns
A
Geometry
object

scale
(x_scale=1, y_scale=1, inplace=False)¶ Scales a
Geometry
object in either the x,y or both directions.Argument
Description
x_scale
Optional Float. The xscale factor.
y_scale
Optional Float. The yscale factor.
inplace
Optional Boolean. If True, the value is updated in the object, False creates a new object
 Returns
A
Geometry
object
>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom2 = geom.sacle(x_scale = 3, y_scale = 0.5, inplace = False)

segment_along_line
(start_measure, end_measure, use_percentage=False)¶ Retrieves a
Polyline
betweenstart
andend
measures.segment_along_line
is similar to thepositionAlongLine
method but will return a polyline segment between two points on the polyline instead of a singlePoint
.Note
The
segment_along_line
method requires ArcPyArgument
Description
start_measure
Required Float. The starting distance from the beginning of the line.
end_measure
Required Float. The ending distance from the beginning of the line.
use_percentage
Optional Boolean. The start and end measures may be specified as fixed units or as a ratio. If True, start_measure and end_measure are used as a percentage; if False, start_measure and end_measure are used as a distance.
Note
For percentages, the measures should be expressed as a double from 0.0 (0 percent) to 1.0 (100 percent).
 Returns
A float
>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom.segment_along_line(start_measure =0, end_measure= 1000, use_percentage = True) 0.56

skew
(x_angle=0, y_angle=0, inplace=False)¶ Creates a skew transform along one or both axes.
Argument
Description
x_angle
optional Float. Angle to skew in the x coordinate
y_angle
Optional Float. Angle to skew in the y coordinate
inplace
Optional Boolean. If True, the value is updated in the object, False creates a new object
 Returns
A
Geometry
object

snap_to_line
(second_geometry)¶ The
snap_to_line
method retrieves a newPoint
based on in_point snapped to thisGeometry
object.Note
The
snap_to_line
method requires ArcPyArgument
Description
second_geometry
Required
Geometry
 A second geometry Returns
A
Point
object

property
spatial_reference
¶ Gets the
SpatialReference
of the geometry.>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom.spatial_reference <SpatialReference Class>
 Returns
A
SpatialReference
object

symmetric_difference
(second_geometry)¶ The
symmetric_difference
method constructs a newGeometry
object that is the union of two geometries minus the intersection of those geometries.Note
The two input geometries must be the same shape type.
Note
The
symmetric_difference
method requires ArcPy or ShapelyArgument
Description
second_geometry
Required
Geometry
object. A second geometry Returns
A
Geometry
object

touches
(second_geometry)¶ Indicates if the boundaries of the two
Geometry
objects intersect.Note
The
touches
method requires ArcPy or ShapelyArgument
Description
second_geometry
Required
Geometry
object. A second geometry Returns
A boolean indicating whether the
Geometry
objects touch (True), or if they do not touch (False)

translate
(x_offset=0, y_offset=0, inplace=False)¶ Moves a
Geometry
object in the x and y direction by a given distance.Argument
Description
x_offset
Optional Float. Translation x offset
y_offset
Optional Float. Translation y offset
inplace
Optional Boolean. If True, updates the existing Geometry,else it creates a new Geometry object
 Returns
A
Geometry
object
>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom.translate(x_offset = 40, y_offset = 50, inplace = True)

property
true_centroid
¶ Gets the
Point
representing the center of gravity for a feature.Note
The
true_centroid
method requires ArcPy or Shapely>>> geom = Geometry({ >>> "rings" : [[[97.06138,32.837],[97.06133,32.836],[97.06124,32.834],[97.06127,32.832], >>> [97.06138,32.837]],[[97.06326,32.759],[97.06298,32.755],[97.06153,32.749], >>> [97.06326,32.759]]], >>> "spatialReference" : {"wkid" : 4326} >>> }) >>> geom.true_centroid {'x': 97.06272135472369, 'y': 32.746201426025, 'spatialReference': {'wkid': 4326, 'latestWkid': 4326}}
 Returns
A
Point
object

union
(second_geometry)¶ Constructs the
Geometry
object that is the settheoretic union of the input geometries.Note
The
union
method requires ArcPy or ShapelyArgument
Description
second_geometry
Required
Geometry
object. A second geometry Returns
A
Geometry
object

within
(second_geometry, relation=None)¶ Indicates if the base
Geometry
object is within the comparisonGeometry
object.Note
The
within
method requires ArcPy or ShapelyArgument
Description
second_geometry
Required
Geometry
object. A second geometryrelation
Optional String. The spatial relationship type.
BOUNDARY  Relationship has no restrictions for interiors or boundaries.
CLEMENTINI  Interiors of geometries must intersect. Specifying CLEMENTINI is equivalent to specifying None. This is the default.
PROPER  Boundaries of geometries must not intersect.
 Returns
A boolean indicating the
Geometry
object is within (True), or not within (False)

property
areas_and_lengths¶

arcgis.geometry.
areas_and_lengths
(polygons, length_unit, area_unit, calculation_type, spatial_ref=4326, gis=None, future=False)¶ The
areas_and_lengths
function calculates areas and perimeter lengths for eachPolygon
specified in the input array.Keys
Description
polygons
The array of
Polygon
whose areas and lengths are to be computed.length_unit
The length unit in which the perimeters of polygons will be calculated. If
calculation_type
is planar, thenlength_unit
can be any esriUnits constant (string or integer). IfcalculationType
is not planar, thenlength_unit
must be a linear esriUnits constant, such as esriSRUnit_Meter`(i.e. `9001``LengthUnits.METER) or esriSRUnit_SurveyMile`(i.e. `9035``LengthUnits.SURVEYMILE). Iflength_unit
is not specified, the units are derived fromspatial_ref
. Ifspatial_ref
is not specified as well, the units are in meters. For a list of valid units, see esriSRUnitType Constants and esriSRUnit2Type Constants.area_unit
The area unit in which areas of polygons will be calculated. If calculation_type is planar, then area_unit can be any esriAreaUnits constant (dict or enum). If
calculation_type
is not planar, thenarea_unit
must be a esriAreaUnits constant such as AreaUnits.SQUAREMETERS (i.e. {“areaUnit”: “esriSquareMeters”}) or AreaUnits.SQUAREMILES (i.e. {“areaUnit”: “esriSquareMiles”}). Ifarea_unit
is not specified, the units are derived fromspatial_ref
. Ifspatial_ref
is not specified, then the units are in square meters. For a list of valid units, see esriAreaUnits Constants. The list of valid esriAreaUnits constants include, esriSquareInches  esriSquareFeet  esriSquareYards  esriAcres  esriSquareMiles  esriSquareMillimeters  esriSquareCentimeters  esriSquareDecimeters  esriSquareMeters  esriAres  esriHectares  esriSquareKilometers.calculation_type
The type defined for the area and length calculation of the input geometries. The type can be one of the following values:
1. planar  Planar measurements use 2D Euclidean distance to calculate area and length. This should only be used if the area or length needs to be calculated in the given
SpatialReference
. Otherwise, usepreserveShape
.2. geodesic  Use this type if you want to calculate an area or length using only the vertices of the
Polygon
and define the lines between the points as geodesic segments independent of the actual shape of thePolygon
. A geodesic segment is the shortest path between two points on an ellipsoid.3. preserveShape  This type calculates the area or length of the geometry on the surface of the Earth ellipsoid. The shape of the geometry in its coordinate system is preserved.
future
A required Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
>>> # Use case 1 >>> areas_and_lengths(polygons =[polygon1, polygon2,...], length_unit = 9001, area_unit = {"areaUnit": "esriSquareMeters"}, calculation_type = "planar") >>> # Use case 2 >>> from arcgis.geometry import LengthUnits, AreaUnits >>> areas_and_lengths(polygons =[polygon1, polygon2,...], length_unit = LengthUnits.METER, area_unit = AreaUnits.SQUAREMETERS, calculation_type = "planar", future = True)
 Returns
A JSON as dictionary, or a GeometryJob object
auto_complete¶

arcgis.geometry.
auto_complete
(polygons=None, polylines=None, spatial_ref=None, gis=None, future=False)¶ The
auto_complete
function simplifies the process of constructing newPolygon
objects that are adjacent to other polygons. It constructs polygons that fill in the gaps between existing polygons and a set ofPolyline
objects.Keys
Description
polygons
An array of
Polygon
objectspolylines
An List of
Polyline
objectsspatial_ref
A
SpatialReference
of the input geometries WKIDfuture
An optional Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
 Returns
A
Polygon
object, or a GeometryJob object
buffer¶

arcgis.geometry.
buffer
(geometries, in_sr, distances, unit, out_sr=None, buffer_sr=None, union_results=None, geodesic=None, gis=None, future=False)¶ The
buffer
function is performed on a geometry service resource The result of this function is a bufferedPolygon
at the specified distances for the inputGeometry
array.Note
The options are available to union buffers and to use geodesic distance.
Keys
Description
geometries
The array of geometries to be buffered
in_sr
The wellknown ID of the
SpatialReference
or a spatial reference JSON object for the input geometries.distances
The distances that each of the input geometries is buffered.
unit
The units for calculating each buffer distance. If unit is not specified, the units are derived from
bufferSR
. IfbufferSR
is not specified, the units are derived fromin_sr
.out_sr
The wellknown ID of the
SpatialReference
or a spatial reference JSON object for the output geometries.buffer_sr
The wellknown ID of the
SpatialReference
or a spatial reference JSON object for the buffer geometries.union_results
A boolean. If True, all geometries buffered at a given distance are unioned into a single (gis,possibly multipart)
Polygon
, and the unioned geometry is placed in the output array. The default is False.geodesic
Set geodesic to true to buffer the input geometries using geodesic distance. Geodesic distance is the shortest path between two points along the ellipsoid of the earth. If geodesic is set to False, the 2D Euclidean distance is used to buffer the input geometries.
Note
The default value depends on the geometry type, unit and bufferSR.
future
An optional Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
>>> buffer(geometries =[geom1, geom2,...], in_sr = "wkid_in", unit = "esriMeters", out_sr = "wkid_out", buffer_sr = "wkid_buffer", union_results =True, geodesic = True, future = True)
 Returns
A list of
Polygon
object, or a GeometryJob object
convex_hull¶

arcgis.geometry.
convex_hull
(geometries, spatial_ref=None, gis=None, future=False)¶ The convex_hull function is performed on a
Geometry
service resource. It returns the convex hull of the input geometry. The input geometry can be aPoint
,MultiPoint
,Polyline
, orPolygon
.Note
The convex hull is typically a polygon but can also be a polyline or point in degenerate cases.
Keys
Description
geometries
An array of
Point
,MultiPoint
,Polyline
, orPolygon
objects. The structure of each geometry in the array is the same as the structure of the JSON geometry objects returned by the ArcGIS REST API.spatial_ref
A
SpatialReference
of the input geometries WellKnown ID or JSON objectfuture
An optional Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
 Returns
The convex hull of the
Geometry
object, or a GeometryJob object
cut¶

arcgis.geometry.
cut
(cutter, target, spatial_ref=None, gis=None, future=False)¶ The cut function is performed on a
Geometry
service resource. This function splits the targetPolyline
orPolygon
where it is crossed by the cutter polyline.Note
At 10.1 and later, this function calls simplify on the input cutter and target geometries.
Keys
Description
cutter
The
Polyline
that will be used to divide the target into pieces where it crosses the target.The spatial reference of the polylines is specified byspatial_ref
.Note
The structure of the polyline is the same as the structure of the JSON polyline objects returned by the ArcGIS REST API.
geometries
The array of
Polyline
orPolygon
to be cut. The structure of the geometry is the same as the structure of the JSON geometry objects returned by the ArcGIS REST API. The spatial reference of the target geometry array is specified by spatial_ref.spatial_ref
A
SpatialReference
of the input geometries WellKnown ID or a JSON object for the output geometryfuture
An optional Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
 Returns
A List of
Geometry
objects, or a GeometryJob object
densify¶

arcgis.geometry.
densify
(geometries, spatial_ref, max_segment_length, length_unit, geodesic=False, gis=None, future=False)¶ The
densify
function is performed using theGIS
geometry engine. This function densifiesGeometry
objects by plottingPoint
objects between existing vertices.Keys
Description
geometries
An array of
Point
,MultiPoint
,Polyline
, orPolygon
objects. The structure of each geometry in the array is the same as the structure of the JSON geometry objects returned by the ArcGIS REST API.spatial_ref
The
wellknown ID
or a spatial reference JSON object for the inputPolyline
object.Note
For a list of valid WKID values, see Projected coordinate systems and Geographic coordinate systems.
max_segment_len
All segments longer than
maxSegmentLength
are replaced with sequences of lines no longer thanmax_segment_length
.length_unit
The length unit of
max_segment_length
. Ifgeodesic
is set to false, then the units are derived fromspatial_ref
, andlength_unit
is ignored. Ifgeodesic
is set to true, thenlength_unit
must be a linear unit. In a case wherelength_unit
is not specified andspatial_ref
is a PCS, the units are derived fromspatial_ref
. In a case wherelength_unit
is not specified andspatial_ref
is a GCS, then the units are meters.geodesic
If geodesic is set to true, then geodesic distance is used to calculate max_segment_length. Geodesic distance is the shortest path between two points along the ellipsoid of the earth. If geodesic is set to false, then 2D Euclidean distance is used to calculate max_segment_length. The default is false.
future
An optional Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
>>> densify(geometries =[geom1, geom2,...], spatial_ref = "wkid", max_segment_length = 100.0, length_unit = "esriMeters", geodesic = True, future = False)
 Returns
A list of
Geometry
object, or a GeometryJob object
difference¶

arcgis.geometry.
difference
(geometries, spatial_ref, geometry, gis=None, future=False)¶ The
difference
function is performed on a geometry service resource. This function constructs the settheoretic difference between each element of an array of geometries and another geometry the socalled difference geometry. In other words, let B be the difference geometry. For each geometry, A, in the input geometry array, it constructs AB.Keys
Description
geometries
An array of
Point
,MultiPoint
,Polyline
, orPolygon
objects. The structure of each geometry in the array is the same as the structure of the JSON geometry objects returned by the ArcGIS REST API.geometry
A single geometry of any type and of a dimension equal to or greater than the elements of geometries. The structure of geometry is the same as the structure of the JSON geometry objects returned by the ArcGIS REST API. The use of simple syntax is not supported.
spatial_ref
A
SpatialReference
of the input geometries WellKnown ID or JSON objectfuture
An optional Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
 Returns
A list of
Geometry
objects, or a GeometryJob object
distance¶

arcgis.geometry.
distance
(spatial_ref, geometry1, geometry2, distance_unit='', geodesic=False, gis=None, future=False)¶ The
distance
function is performed on a geometry service resource. It reports the 2D Euclidean or geodesic distance between the twoGeometry
objects.Keys
Description
geometry1
The
Geometry
object from which the distance is measured. The structure of each geometry in the array is the same as the structure of the JSON geometry objects returned by the ArcGIS REST API.geometry2
The
Geometry
object to which the distance is measured. The structure of each geometry in the array is the same as the structure of the JSON geometry objects returned by the ArcGIS REST API.distance_unit
Optional. One of
LengthUnits
enumeration members. See Geometry Service distance for full details.geodesic
If
geodesic
is set to true, then the geodesic distance between thegeometry1
andgeometry2
geometries is returned. Geodesic distance is the shortest path between two points along the ellipsoid of the earth. Ifgeodesic
is set to false or not specified, the planar distance is returned. The default value is false.spatial_ref
A
SpatialReference
of the input geometries WellKnown ID or JSON objectfuture
An optional Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
 Returns
The 2D or geodesic distance between the two
Geometry
objects, or a GeometryJob object
find_transformation¶

arcgis.geometry.
find_transformation
(in_sr, out_sr, extent_of_interest=None, num_of_results=1, gis=None, future=False)¶ The
find_transformations
function is performed on aGeometry
service resource. This function returns a list of applicable geographic transformations you should use when projecting geometries from the inputSpatialReference
to the outputSpatialReference
. The transformations are in JSON format and are returned in order of most applicable to least applicable. Recall that a geographic transformation is not needed when the input and output spatial references have the same underlying geographic coordinate systems. In this case, findTransformations returns an empty list.Note
Every returned geographic transformation is a forward transformation meaning that it can be used asis to project from the input spatial reference to the output spatial reference. In the case where a predefined transformation needs to be applied in the reverse direction, it is returned as a forward composite transformation containing one transformation and a transformForward element with a value of false.
Keys
Description
in_sr
The wellknown ID of the
SpatialReference
or a spatial reference JSON object for the input geometries.out_sr
The wellknown ID of the
SpatialReference
or a spatial reference JSON object for the output geometries.ext_of_interest
The bounding box of the area of interest specified as a JSON envelope.If provided, the extent of interest is used to return the most applicable geographic transformations for the area.
Note
If a
SpatialReference
is not included in the JSON envelope, thein_sr
is used for the envelope.num_of_results
The number of geographic transformations to return. The default value is 1.
Note
If
num_of_results
has a value of 1, all applicable transformations are returned.future
An optional Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
 Returns
A List of geographic transformations, or a GeometryJob object
from_geo_coordinate_string¶

arcgis.geometry.
from_geo_coordinate_string
(spatial_ref, strings, conversion_type, conversion_mode=None, gis=None, future=False)¶ The
from_geo_coordinate_string
function is performed on aGeometry
service resource. The function converts an array of wellknown strings into xycoordinates based on the conversion type andSpatialReference
supplied by the user. An optional conversion mode parameter is available for some conversion types. Seeto_geo_coordinate_strings
for more information on the opposite conversion.Keys
Description
spatial_ref
A
SpatialReference
of the input geometries WellKnown ID or JSON objectstrings
An array of strings formatted as specified by conversion_type. Syntax: [<string1>,…,<stringN>]
conversiontype
The conversion type of the input strings.
Note
Valid conversion types are: MGRS  Military Grid Reference System USNG  United States National Grid UTM  Universal Transverse Mercator GeoRef  World Geographic Reference System GARS  Global Area Reference System DMS  Degree Minute Second DDM  Degree Decimal Minute DD  Decimal Degree
conversion_mode
Conversion options for MGRS, UTM and GARS conversion types.
Note
Valid conversion modes for MGRS are: mgrsDefault  Default. Uses the spheroid from the given spatial reference.
mgrsNewStyle  Treats all spheroids as new, like WGS 1984. The 80 degree longitude falls into Zone 60.
mgrsOldStyle  Treats all spheroids as old, like Bessel 1841. The 180 degree longitude falls into Zone 60.
mgrsNewWith180InZone01  Same as mgrsNewStyle except the 180 degree longitude falls into Zone 01
mgrsOldWith180InZone01  Same as mgrsOldStyle except the 180 degree longitude falls into Zone 01
Note
Valid conversion modes for UTM are: utmDefault  Default. No options. utmNorthSouth  Uses north/south latitude indicators instead of zone numbers  Nonstandard. Default is recommended
future
An optional Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
>>> coords = from_geo_coordinate_string(spatial_ref = "wkid", strings = ["01N AA 66021 00000","11S NT 00000 62155", "31U BT 94071 65288"] conversion_type = "MGRS", conversion_mode = "mgrs_default", future = False) >>> coords [[x1,y1], [x2,y2], [x3,y3]]
 Returns
An array of (x,y) coordinates, or a GeometryJob object
generalize¶

arcgis.geometry.
generalize
(spatial_ref, geometries, max_deviation, deviation_unit, gis=None, future=False)¶ The
generalize
function is performed on aGeometry
service resource. The generalize function simplifies the input geometries using the DouglasPeucker algorithm with a specified maximum deviation distance.Note
The output geometries will contain a subset of the original input vertices.
Keys
Description
geometries
The array
Geometry
objects to be generalized.max_deviation
max_deviation
sets the maximum allowable offset, which will determine the degree of simplification. This value limits the distance the output geometry can differ from the input geometry.deviation_unit
If
geodesic
is set to true, then the geodesic distancebetween the
geometry1
andgeometry2
geometries is returned. Geodesic distance is the shortest path between two points along the ellipsoid of the earth. Ifgeodesic
is set to false or not specified, the planar distance is returned. The default value is false.spatial_ref
A
SpatialReference
of the input geometries WellKnown ID or JSON objectfuture
An optional Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
 Returns
An array of the simplified
Geometry
objects, or a GeometryJob object
intersect¶

arcgis.geometry.
intersect
(spatial_ref, geometries, geometry, gis=None, future=False)¶ The
intersect
function is performed on aGeometry
service resource. This function constructs the settheoretic intersection between an array of geometries and another geometry.Note
The dimension of each resultant geometry is the minimum dimension of the input geometry in the geometries array and the other geometry specified by the geometry parameter.
Keys
Description
geometries
An array of
Point
,MultiPoint
,Polyline
, orPolygon
objects. The structure of each geometry in the array is the same as the structure of the JSON geometry objects returned by the ArcGIS REST API.geometry
A single
Geometry
of any type and of a dimension equal to or greater than the elements of geometries. The structure of geometry is the same as the structure of the JSON geometry objects returned by the ArcGIS REST API. The use of simple syntax is not supported.spatial_ref
A
SpatialReference
of the input geometries WellKnown ID or JSON objectfuture
An optional Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
 Returns
The settheoretic dimension between
Geometry
objects, or a GeometryJob object
label_points¶

arcgis.geometry.
label_points
(spatial_ref, polygons, gis=None, future=False)¶ The
label_points
function is performed on aGeometry
service resource. ThelabelPoints
function calculates an interiorPoint
for eachPolygon
specified in the input array. These interior points can be used by clients for labeling the polygons.Keys
Description
polygons
An array of
Polygon
objects whose labelPoint
objects are to be computed. The spatial reference of the polygons is specified byspatial_ref
.spatial_ref
A
SpatialReference
of the input geometries WellKnown ID or JSON objectfuture
An optional Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
 Returns
An array of
Point
objects, or a GeometryJob object
lengths¶

arcgis.geometry.
lengths
(spatial_ref, polylines, length_unit, calculation_type, gis=None, future=False)¶ The
lengths
function is performed on aGeometry
service resource. This function calculates the` 2D Euclidean` or geodesic lengths of eachPolyline
specified in the input array.Keys
Description
polylines
The array of
Polyline
whose lengths are to be computed.length_unit
The length unit in which the length of
Polyline
will be calculated. Ifcalculation_type
is planar, thenlength_unit
can be any esriUnits constant. IflengthUnit
is not specified, the units are derived fromspatial_ref
. IfcalculationType
is not planar, then lengthUnit must be a linear esriUnits constant, such as esriSRUnit_Meter or esriSRUnit_SurveyMile. Iflength_unit
is not specified, the units are meters. For a list of valid units, see esriSRUnitType Constants and esriSRUnit2Type Constant.calculation_type
The type defined for the length calculation of the input geometries. The type can be one of the following values:
1. planar  Planar measurements use 2D Euclidean distance to calculate area and length. This should only be used if the area or length needs to be calculated in the given
SpatialReference
. Otherwise, usepreserveShape
.2. geodesic  Use this type if you want to calculate an area or length using only the vertices of the
Polygon
and define the lines between the points as geodesic segments independent of the actual shape of thePolygon
. A geodesic segment is the shortest path between two points on an ellipsoid.3. preserveShape  This type calculates the area or length of the geometry on the surface of the Earth ellipsoid. The shape of the geometry in its coordinate system is preserved.
future
A required Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
 Returns
A list of floats of 2DEuclidean or Geodesic lengths, or a GeometryJob object
offset¶

arcgis.geometry.
offset
(geometries, offset_distance, offset_unit, offset_how='esriGeometryOffsetRounded', bevel_ratio=10, simplify_result=False, spatial_ref=None, gis=None, future=False)¶ The
offset
function is performed on aGeometry
service resource. This function constructs geometries that are offset from the given input geometries. If the offset parameter is positive, the constructed offset will be on the right side of the geometry. Left side offsets are constructed with negative parameters.Note
Tracing the geometry from its first vertex to the last will give you a direction along the geometry. It is to the right and left perspective of this direction that the positive and negative parameters will dictate where the offset is constructed. In these terms, it is simple to infer where the offset of even horizontal geometries will be constructed.
Keys
Description
geometries
An array of
Point
,MultiPoint
,Polyline
, orPolygon
objects. The structure of each geometry in the array is the same as the structure of the JSON geometry objects returned by the ArcGIS REST API.offset_distance
Specifies the distance for constructing an offset based on the input geometries.
Note
If the
offset_distance
parameter is positive, the constructed offset will be on the right side of the curve. Leftside offsets are constructed with negative values.offset_unit
A unit for offset distance. If a unit is not specified, the units are derived from
spatial_ref
.offset_how
The
offset_how
parameter determines how outer corners between segments are handled. The three options are as follows:esriGeometryOffsetRounded
 Rounds the corner between extended offsets.esriGeometryOffsetBevelled
 Squares off the corner after a given ratio distance.
3.
esriGeometryOffsetMitered
 Attempts to allow extended offsets to naturally intersect, but if that intersection occurs too far from the corner, the corner is eventually bevelled off at a fixed distance.bevel_ratio
bevel_ratio
is multiplied by theoffset_distance
, and the result determines how far a mitered offset intersection can be located before it is bevelled. When mitered is specified, bevel_ratio is ignored and 10 is used internally. When bevelled is specified, 1.1 will be used if bevel_ratio is not specified.bevel_ratio
is ignored for rounded offset.simplify_result
if
simplify_result
is set to true, then self intersecting loops will be removed from the result offset geometries. The default is false.spatial_ref
A
SpatialReference
of the input geometries WellKnown ID or JSON objectfuture
An optional Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
>>> new_job = offset( geometries = [geom1,geom2,...], offset_distance = 100, offset_unit = "esriMeters", offset_how = "esriGeometryOffsetRounded", bevel_ratio = 0, simplify_result = True spatial_ref = "wkid", future = True)
 Returns
A list of
Geometry
objects, or a GeometryJob object
project¶

arcgis.geometry.
project
(geometries, in_sr, out_sr, transformation='', transform_forward=False, gis=None, future=False)¶ The
project
function is performed on aGeometry
service resource. This function projects an array of input geometries from the inputSpatialReference
to the outputSpatialReference
Keys
Description
geometries
An array of
Point
,MultiPoint
,Polyline
, orPolygon
objects. The structure of each geometry in the array is the same as the structure of the JSON geometry objects returned by the ArcGIS REST API.in_sr
The wellknown ID of the
SpatialReference
or a spatial reference JSON object for the input geometries.out_sr
The wellknown ID of the
SpatialReference
or a spatial reference JSON object for the output geometries.transformations
The WKID or a JSON object specifying the geographic transformation (gis,also known as datum transformation) to be applied to the projected geometries.
Note
A transformation is needed only if the output
SpatialReference
contains a different geographic coordinate system than the input spatial reference.transformforward
A Boolean value indicating whether or not to transform forward. The forward or reverse direction of transformation is implied in the name of the transformation. If transformation is specified, a value for the
transform_Forward
parameter must also be specified. The default value is false.future
An optional Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
#Usage Example >>> result = project(geometries = [{"x": 17568824.55, "y": 2428377.35}, {"x": 17568456.88, "y": 2428431.352}], in_sr = 3857, out_sr = 4326) [{"x": 157.82343617279275, "y": 21.305781607280093}, {"x": 157.8201333369876, "y": 21.306233559873714}]
 Returns
A list of
Geometry
objects in theout_sr
coordinate system, or a GeometryJob object
relation¶

arcgis.geometry.
relation
(geometries1, geometries2, spatial_ref, spatial_relation='esriGeometryRelationIntersection', relation_param='', gis=None, future=False)¶ The
relation
function is performed on aGeometry
service resource. This function determines the pairs of geometries from the input geometry arrays that participate in the specified spatial relation. Both arrays are assumed to be in the spatial reference specified byspatial_ref
, which is a required parameter. Geometry types cannot be mixed within an array.Note
The relations are evaluated in 2D. In other words, z coordinates are not used.
Keys
Description
geometry1
The first array of
Geometry
objects to compute relations.geometry2
The second array of
Geometry
objects to compute relations.relation_param
The Shape Comparison Language string to be evaluated.
spatial_relation
The spatial relationship to be tested between the two input geometry arrays. Values: esriGeometryRelationCross  esriGeometryRelationDisjoint  esriGeometryRelationIn  esriGeometryRelationInteriorIntersection  esriGeometryRelationIntersection  esriGeometryRelationLineCoincidence  esriGeometryRelationLineTouch  esriGeometryRelationOverlap  esriGeometryRelationPointTouch  esriGeometryRelationTouch  esriGeometryRelationWithin  esriGeometryRelationRelation
spatial_ref
A
SpatialReference
of the input geometries WellKnown ID or JSON objectfuture
An optional Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
>>> new_res = relation(geometry1 = [geom1,geom2,...], geometry2 = [geom21,geom22,..], relation_param = "relationParameter", spatial_relation = "esriGeometryRelationPointTouch" spatial_ref = "wkid", future = False) >>> new_res {'relations': [{'geometry1Index': 0, 'geometry2Index': 0}]}
 Returns
A JSON dict of geometryNIndex between two lists of geometries, or a GeometryJob object
reshape¶

arcgis.geometry.
reshape
(spatial_ref, target, reshaper, gis=None, future=False)¶ The
reshape
function is performed on aGeometry
service resource. It reshapes aPolyline
orPolygon
feature by constructing a polyline over the feature. The feature takes the shape of the reshaper polyline from the first place the reshaper intersects the feature to the last.Keys
Description
target
reshaper
The singlepart
Polyline
that does the reshaping.spatial_ref
A
SpatialReference
of the input geometries WellKnown ID or a JSON object for the input geometryfuture
An optional Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
to_geo_coordinate_string¶

arcgis.geometry.
to_geo_coordinate_string
(spatial_ref, coordinates, conversion_type, conversion_mode='mgrsDefault', num_of_digits=None, rounding=True, add_spaces=True, gis=None, future=False)¶ The
to_geo_coordinate_string
function is performed on aGeometry
service resource. The function converts an array of xycoordinates into wellknown strings based on the conversion type andSpatialReference
supplied by theUser
. Optional parameters are available for some conversion types. Seefrom_geo_coordinate_strings
for more information on the opposite conversion.Note
If an optional parameter is not applicable for a particular conversion type, but a value is supplied for that parameter, the value will be ignored.
Keys
Description
spatial_ref
A
SpatialReference
of the input geometries WellKnown ID or JSON objectcoordinates
An array of xycoordinates in JSON format to be converted. Syntax: [[x1,y2],…[xN,yN]]
conversiontype
The conversion type of the input strings.
Note
Valid conversion types are: MGRS  Military Grid Reference System USNG  United States National Grid UTM  Universal Transverse Mercator GeoRef  World Geographic Reference System GARS  Global Area Reference System DMS  Degree Minute Second DDM  Degree Decimal Minute DD  Decimal Degree
conversion_mode
Conversion options for MGRS, UTM and GARS conversion types.
Note
Valid conversion modes for MGRS are: mgrsDefault  Default. Uses the spheroid from the given spatial reference.
mgrsNewStyle  Treats all spheroids as new, like WGS 1984. The 80 degree longitude falls into Zone 60.
mgrsOldStyle  Treats all spheroids as old, like Bessel 1841. The 180 degree longitude falls into Zone 60.
mgrsNewWith180InZone01  Same as mgrsNewStyle except the 180 degree longitude falls into Zone 01
mgrsOldWith180InZone01  Same as mgrsOldStyle except the 180 degree longitude falls into Zone 01
Note
Valid conversion modes for UTM are: utmDefault  Default. No options. utmNorthSouth  Uses north/south latitude indicators instead of zone numbers  Nonstandard. Default is recommended
num_of_digits
The number of digits to output for each of the numerical portions in the string. The default value for
num_of_digits
varies depending onconversion_type
.rounding
If
True
, then numeric portions of the string are rounded to the nearest whole magnitude as specified by num_of_digits. Otherwise, numeric portions of the string are truncated. The rounding parameter applies only to conversion types MGRS, USNG and GeoRef. The default value isTrue
.addSpaces
If
True
, then spaces are added between components of the string. TheaddSpaces
parameter applies only to conversion types MGRS, USNG and UTM. The default value for MGRS isFalse
, while the default value for both USNG and UTM isTrue
.future
An optional Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
>>> strings = from_geo_coordinate_string(spatial_ref = "wkid", coordinates = [[x1,y1], [x2,y2], [x3,y3]] conversion_type = "MGRS", conversion_mode = "mgrs_default", future = False) >>> strings ["01N AA 66021 00000","11S NT 00000 62155", "31U BT 94071 65288"]
 Returns
An array of Strings, or a GeometryJob object
trim_extend¶

arcgis.geometry.
trim_extend
(spatial_ref, polylines, trim_extend_to, extend_how=0, gis=None, future=False)¶ The
trim_extend
function is performed on aGeometry
service resource. This function trims or extends eachPolyline
specified in the input array, using the userspecified guide polylines.Note
When trimming features, the part to the left of the oriented cutting line is preserved in the output, and the other part is discarded. An empty
Polyline
is added to the output array if the corresponding input polyline is neither cut nor extended.Keys
Description
polylines
An array of
Polyline
objects to trim or extendtrim_extend_to
A
Polyline
that is used as a guide for trimming or extending input polylines.extend_how
A flag that is used along with the trimExtend function.
0
 By default, an extension considers both ends of a path. The old ends remain, and new points are added to the extended ends. The new points have attributes that are extrapolated from adjacent existing segments.1
 If an extension is performed at an end, relocate the end point to the new position instead of leaving the old point and adding a new point at the new position.2
 If an extension is performed at an end, do not extrapolate the endsegment’s attributes for the new point. Instead, make its attributes the same as the current end. Incompatible with esriNoAttributes.4
 If an extension is performed at an end, do not extrapolate the endsegment’s attributes for the new point. Instead, make its attributes empty. Incompatible with esriKeepAttributes.8
 Do not extend the ‘from’ end of any path.16
 Do not extend the ‘to’ end of any path.spatial_ref
A
SpatialReference
of the input geometries WellKnown ID or JSON objectfuture
An optional Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
>>> polylines_arr = trim_extends(polylines = [polyline1,polyline2, ...], trim_extend_to = polyline_trimmer extend_how = 2, spatial_ref = "wkid", future = False) >>> polyline_arr [polyline1, polyline2,...]
 Returns
An array of
Polyline
objects, or a GeometryJob object
union¶

arcgis.geometry.
union
(geometries, spatial_ref: Optional[Union[str, dict[str:str]]] = None, gis=None, future=False)¶ The
union
function is performed on aGeometry
service resource. This function constructs the settheoretic union of the geometries in the input array.Note
All inputs must be of the same type.
Keys
Description
geometries
Required. An array of
Point
,MultiPoint
,Polyline
, orPolygon
objects. The structure of each geometry in the array is the same as the structure of the JSON geometry objects returned by the ArcGIS REST API.spatial_ref
An optional String or JSON Dict representing the wkid to be used. The default is the spatial reference found in the geometry or, if None found, then “4326”.
Example: “4326” or {“wkid”:”4326”}
future
An optional Boolean. This operation determines if the job is run asynchronously or not.
 Returns
The settheoretic union of the
Geometry
objects, or a GeometryJob object